Chapter 5: The Communication Process

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Chapter 5: The Communication Process

What is communication?

Words, pictures, sounds, and colors are often
used for communication. Yet they have
different meanings to different audiences, and
people’s perceptions and interpretations of
them vary.
One-Way Communication Model
Source/
Sender
Encoding
Message/
Channel
Decoding
Receiver
Response
Noise
Two-Way Communication Model
Encoding
Message/
Channel
Decoding
Receiver
Response
Feedback
Source/
Sender
Noise
Marketing Communication Process
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Pros and Cons of one-way vs. two-way communication
Of the five marketing communication tools, which are
one/two-way communication?
Components of marketing communication
- source/sender
- encoding
- message/channel
- decoding
- receiver
- response/feedback
- noise
The Receivers
Mass Markets and Audiences
Market Segments
One-way
Mass communication
Niche Markets
Individual
and Group
Audiences
Two-way
Personal communication
The Response Process
Traditional models of the response process
Stages
AIDA
model
Hierarchy of
effects model
Innovation
adoption
model
Information
processing model
Cognitive
stage
Attention
Awareness
Knowledge
Awareness
Presentation
Attention
Comprehension
Affective
stage
Interest
Desire
Liking
Preference
Conviction
Interest
Evaluation
Yielding
Retention
Behavior
stage
Action
Purchase
Trial
Adoption
Bahavior
Cognitive Processing of Communications:
A model of cognitive response
Exposure
to Ad
Cognitive
responses
Attitudes
Product/
message
thoughts
Brand
attitudes
Sourceoriented
thoughts
Ad
execution
thoughts
Behavioral
Intention
Purchase
intention
At. toward
Ad
The Impact of Involvement on consumers’ response process
Involvement: Personal relevance. But with what?
Antecedents of involvement
Possible impact of involvement
Personal factors
 Needs
 Importance
 Interest
 Values
Object or stimulus
factors
- Differentiation of
alternatives
- Source of
communication
- Content of
communication
Situational factors
- Purchase/use
- Occasion
Elicitation of counter-arguments
to ads
Effectiveness of ad to induce
purchase
Involvement
With advertisements
Relative importance of the
product class
Perceived differences in product
attributes
With Products
With purchase decisions
Preference of a particular brand
Influence of price on brand
choice
Amount of information search
Time spent deliberating
alternatives
Type of decision rule used in
choice
Chapter 6: Source, Message, and Channel
Factors
The Basic Model of Communication
Encoding
Message/
Channel
Noise
Decoding
Receiver
Response
Feedback
Source/
Sender
Sources Factors

the person or business that is involved in the
communication of a promotional message.

direct source

indirect source
Characteristics: credibility, attractiveness, and power
Source Credibility
- the extent to which the receiver perceives the
source to be trustful or believable.
internalization
Source Attractiveness

Attractiveness: the extent to which the receiver
identifies with the source.  identification
- similarity
- familiarity
- likeability
Source Power

A source has power when he or she can actually
administer rewards and punish to the receiver.
 compliance
Message Factors: Structure
- the manner or framework used for structuring or
communicating the information.

Order of presentation (primacy effect, recency effect)
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Conclusion drawing
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Message sidedness (one-sided or two-sided)
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Refutation
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Verbal versus visual messages
Message Factor: Appeal
- the manner or style used to communicate the
promotional message.
Rational vs. Emotional
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Comparative advertising
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Fear appeals
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Humor appeals
Channel Factors
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Personal vs. non-personal channels
Effects of alternative mass media (e.g., self-paced vs.
externally paced)
Effects of context and environment (e.g., qualitative
media effect)
Clutter (all the non-program material that appears in
the broadcast environment such as commercials, public
announcements and the like).

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