Chapter 9

Report
Chapter 9
Guidelines and Required Codes
That Affect Building Design
Introduction
• Guidelines and codes that affect home
design
– Traditionally from home-owner associations
– Many attempt to follow green building
guidelines
• Building codes
– Required laws intended to protect the public
– Minimum guidelines for construction and
inspection of a structure
Green Building Guidelines
• Green building
– Incorporation of environmental considerations
and resources into the construction process
• Green or environmentally friendly building
– Designed, built, operated, renovated, recycled
ecologically, and in a resource-efficient manner
• Meet certain objectives (e.g., protecting health, using
resources efficiently, etc.)
Green Building Guidelines (cont’d.)
• LEED Green Building Rating System
– Designed to help improve building quality and
minimize environmental impact
– Developed by U.S. Green Building Council
– Requires a minimum number of points
•
•
•
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Certified: 26–32 points
Silver: 33–38 points
Gold: 39–51 points
Platinum: 52 points or more
Green Building Guidelines (cont’d.)
• LEED Green Building Rating System key
areas:
– Sustainable sites
– Water efficiency
– Indoor environmental quality
– Energy an atmosphere
– Material and resources
– Innovation and design process
Green Building Guidelines (cont’d.)
• National Green Building Standard ICC 700
– Developed by NAHB and ICC
– Whole-house systems approach
– Intended to increase home’s performance and
efficiency
Green Building Guidelines (cont’d.)
• National Green Building Standard ICC 700
key areas:
– Site design and development
– Lot Design, preparation, and development
– Resource efficiency
– Energy efficiency
– Water efficiency
– Indoor environmental quality
Green Building Guidelines (cont’d.)
• National Green Building Standard ICC 700
key areas (cont’d.):
– Operation, maintenance, and owner education
• Levels of certification:
– Bronze
– Silver
– Gold
– Emerald
National Building Codes
• Regulation of buildings
– Can be traced back more than 4000 years
• George Washington and Thomas Jefferson
• Building codes
– Now used throughout most of U.S.
– Regulates issues (e.g., fire, structural ability,
health, security, energy, new materials and
technology)
National Building Codes (cont’d.)
• Model code organizations
– Oversee accredited laboratories and testing
facilities
• Material suppliers may have their own testing
facilities
• Many jurisdictions adopt building codes
with local amendments
– Vary according to location
National Building Codes (cont’d.)
• National code options
– Most states adopted building codes published
by International Code Council (ICC)
– Some might still be using one of the legacy
codes of the ICC
• Each municipality and state has the right to adopt
all, or a portion, of the indicated code
National Building Codes (cont’d.)
• International code family
– International Code Council (ICC)
• International Building Code (IBC)
• International Residential Code (IRC)
• Choosing the right code
– Responsibility of the architect and engineer
Basic Design Criteria for Building
Planning
• Building codes influence design and
construction methods
– Understand ICC markings
• Space is subdivided into:
– Habitable space
– Nonhabitable space
Basic Design Criteria for Building
Planning (cont’d.)
• Location on the property
– Exterior walls of residential building cannot be
located within 5′ of property lines
• Unless special provisions are met
• Zoning regulations may further restrict location
• Made from materials with one-hour fire rating
Basic Design Criteria for Building
Planning (cont’d.)
• Egress and accessibility requirements for a
residence
– Means of egress
•
•
•
•
•
Egress doors
Emergency egress openings
Halls
Stairs
Handrails and guardrails
Basic Design Criteria for Building
Planning (cont’d.)
• Room dimensions
– Affect the size and ceiling height of rooms
• At least one room with 120 sq ft of total floor area
• Other habitable rooms except kitchens are required
to have a minimum of 70 sq ft and not less than 7′
• Minimum ceiling height of 7′0″ (some exceptions)
Basic Design Criteria for Building
Planning (cont’d.)
• Light and ventilation requirements
– Major effect on window size and placement
• Natural light
• Alternative light and ventilation methods
• Heating and sanitation requirements
– Minimal
• Rarely affect design process
Basic Design Criteria for Building
Planning (cont’d.)
• Safety equipment
– Automatic fire sprinkler system
– Smoke detectors
– Carbon monoxide alarms
Climatic and Geographic Design
Criteria
• Key elements to design a safe structure:
– Air freezing index
– Flood hazard
– Ground snow load
– Mean annual temperature
– Ice barrier underlayment
– Seismic design category
Climatic and Geographic Design
Criteria (cont’d.)
• Key elements to design a safe structure
(cont’d.):
– Susceptibility to damage by:
• Frost line depth
• Termites
• Weathering
– Wind design: speed and topographic effects
– Winter design: temperature
International Energy
Conservation Code
• Published by ICC and is updated every
three years
• Regulates:
– Design and construction of exterior envelope
– Selection of heating, ventilation, and airconditioning, water heating, electrical
distribution and illuminating systems, and
equipment
International Energy
Conservation Code (cont’d.)
• Determining required envelope
– Exterior envelope comprises exterior walls,
ceiling, openings in walls and ceiling, and floor
• Construction depends on climate zones based on
wet-bulb temperature
International Energy
Conservation Code (cont’d.)
• General requirements for building the
envelope:
– Insulation
• Material used to restrict flow of heat, cold, or sound
– Fenestration
• Openings in envelope
• Solar heat gain coefficient and solar heat gain
International Energy
Conservation Code (cont’d.)
• Specific requirements:
– Ceilings with or without attic storage
– Mass walls
– Floor/crawl space walls
– Basement walls
– Slab-on-grade floors

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