Organic Nutrient Management 3

Report
Organic Nutrient Management of
Raspberries in a High Tunnel
By Jesse Dahir-Kanehl, Horticulture Masters Student
Advisor – Prof. Rebecca Harbut
Quick Research Intro
Effects of high tunnel environment on
microbes and mineralization of N, P, K
 Mineralization differences seen in plant
tissue, yields, and berry size?
 Lack of leaching > higher salt buildup
 Increase in fruit quality


Decreases in wind leading to taller plants
Decrease in pest pressure (Japanese
Beetle) and change in pest complex
 Decrease in disease pressure

Background
High School FFA Greenhouse
 Bachelors at UW-Madison,
Horticulture
 Organic Vegetable and Fruit
Farm
 Hobbies: brewing, gardening,
biking, folk
 Coops: Babcock House

Overview
1. High Tunnel (HT) Production
a. Definition
b. Why?
c. Disadvantages
d. Uses in Wisconsin
e. Research being done with HTs
2. Organic Fruit Production in Wisconsin
a. Problems
b. Organic fruit farm/orchard management
c. Why?
d. Research being done
3. My Research Project – No data
a. What’s being studied
b. Where
c. When
d. Why
e. Results
f. Spreading the word
High Tunnel Production

Temporary season extending structure

Arched roof & high sides – snow shedding
Great for tall crops or large machinery
 Relatively new tool, but why use it?

Why?
Higher temps > higher mineralization
 Extends season
 Exclusion of rain – target irrigation
 Reduce application rates
 Increases fruit quality
 Reduces disease and pest pressure
 Changes pest complex
 Reduces wind, increases height
 Marketing

Temperature
Primocane-fruiting Raspberry Production in High
Tunnels in a Cold Region of the Upper
Midwestern United States (Yao and Rosen, 2011)
Plant Height Average (in)
HT 08
Field 08
HT 09
Field 09
64
25
62
28
High Tunnel Avg. - 2009
Field Avg. - 2009
Fruit Size
Yield
Fruit Size
Yield
4.0g
22,253 lb/a
3.8g
4,708 lb/a
Disadvantages
Relatively expensive
 Requires high return
 Salt buildup
 Use in WI

Stephen McDonough, NCSU, 2008
How are they used in Wisconsin?
Mostly season extension
 Largely vegetables – tomatoes
 Nurseries
 Some fruits - raspberries & strawberries
 National Resources Conservation Service
program – 2010, 184 tunnels, $763k

NRCS, 2009
Research on HT


Small Fruit Production in HT, Demchak, 2009, Penn State
HT Tree Fruit Production, Lang, 2009, Michigan State

CO2 Enrichment May Increase Yield of Field-grown Red Raspberry under
HT, Mochizuki et al., 2010, U of California and California State

Engineering Principles Impacting HT Environements, Giacomelli,
2009, University of Arizona
Trends in Soil Quality Under HTs, Knewston et al., 2010, Kansas
State University
Yields and Economics of HTs for Production of Warm-season
Vegetable Crops, Waterer, 2003, University of Saskatchewan
HT and Organic Horticulture: Compost, Food, Safety, and Crop
Quality, Milner et al., 2009, USDA Maryland
+ University of Georgia, Cornell, Colorado State, University of
Minnesota, University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas, 2011
Overview
1. High Tunnel (HT) Production
a. Definition
b. Why?
c. Disadvantages
d. Uses in Wisconsin
e. Research being done with HTs
2. Organic Fruit Production in Wisconsin
a. Problems
b. Organic fruit farm/orchard management
c. Why?
d. Research being done
3. My Research Project – No data
a. What’s being studied
b. Where
c. When
d. Why
e. Results
f. Spreading the word
Problems in WI
Maintaining high soil quality
 Hot + humid = disease

Pests
 Perennial system means perennial weeds
 Overcoming common beliefs of perfection

Pestmall, 2010
Organic Management
Soil amendments
 Pest control
 Disease control
 Weed control
 Marketing – processing

Beverage Express, 2011
High Tunnel Tree Fruit Production: The
Final Frontier? (Lang, 2009)
Pest
Increased Incidence
Decreased
Incidence
Diseases
Powdery Mildew
Cherry Leaf Spot
Bacterial Canker
Insects
Black Cherry Aphid
Plum curculio
Two-spotted Spider Mite
Cherry Fruit Fly
Japanese Beetle
Why?
Price premium
 Marketing
 Sustainability
 Personal beliefs

Golden State Fruit, 2012
Research
Pest control
 Weed control
 Soil amendments
 Increase density
 Season extension
 Breeding
 Postharvest
 Nutrition


Sustainability – economic & environmental
Overview
1. High Tunnel (HT) Production
a. Definition
b. Why?
c. Disadvantages
d. Uses in Wisconsin
e. Research being done with HTs
2. Organic Fruit Production in Wisconsin
a. Problems
b. Organic fruit farm/orchard management
c. Why?
d. Research being done
3. My Research Project – No data
a. What’s being studied
b. Where
c. When
d. Why
e. Results
f. Spreading the word
My Research
Organic fertilizers – cow manure, mushroom,
fish emulsion, urea, none
 Varieties – Caroline & Heritage

Mineralization
 Electrical Conductivity
 Yield
 Hatch and Sustainable Agriculture
Research and Education grants

Where
West Madison Research Station
 Plano silt loam & Kegonsa silt loam
 HT and outside – 96’ x 30’
 Cole Murphy – Fond du lac
 Peninsular Research Station

When
2011 – establishment year
 2012 – soil data, yields, etc
 2013 – soil data

Why?
Fertilization recommendations for HT
 Application times
 Understanding of HT environment
 For the grower

100 Mile Challenge
Spreading the word
Midwest Organic and Sustainable
Education Service conference
 Publish in a journal


Center for Integrated Agriculture Systems
Talk to professors, extension agents,
producers
 Other conferences

Conclusion

HT
◦
◦
◦
◦

Cost
Yield, season, quality
Pest pressure
Reliability and control
Organic Fruit
◦ Price premium
◦ Difficulties
◦ Inputs

Research
◦ Fertilizer recommendation
Further Research
Adapting HT to tall fruit crops or vice
versa
 Other crops? – borderline hardy plants
 Yield modeling inside HT environment
 Effects of dry walkways on soil
 Further studies into HT multiple effects
on soil microbes and biology

Questions and Comments
Kathy Kitchens Downie, 2012

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