The Rosetta Stone of Science

Report
如何写学术论文
How to start
 确定学术思想:研究目标
新,集中,突出,重要性
 组织内容材料:materials
methods
and
写作过程
 样板:决定格式与风格
and style
 初稿:先把想法写出
 修改成文:基本成文
 编辑:内容与格式
 定稿。
format
样板---选择期刊
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期刊的发表论文领域Scope of the journal
衡量自己工作水平,选择与水平相当的期刊
太高:退稿 太低:可惜 略高:合适
按照所选期刊的要求着手
communication
full paper
short note
Model or Template
MODEL: a paper in the journal that you wish
to publish, better by English speaking author
 Get help from the language, not the science
 3 basic characteristics:
*Journal must be good;
*Within the last 2-3 years;
*At least one author is a native speaker of
English
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INOCHE
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scope
“Inorganic Chemistry
Communications is an international
journal dedicated to the rapid
publication of short communications
in the major areas of inorganic,
organometallic and supramolecular
chemistry.”
About Elsevier

29% of Chinese science papers in ISI
with Elsevier currently

Elsevier has 1800+ journals in 50+
subject areas.
ISI Market Shares Of Different Publishers (2004) Articles (all subjects)
各出版商所占ISI的论文份额 (2004) (所有学科)
• Elsevier
25%
Elsevier
• Springer
7.70%
• Blackwell
5.30%
Springer
Blackwell
American Chemical
Wiley
Society
• Wiley
4.60%
• ACS
3.00%
• Taylor &
Francis
America Chemical
Society
Taylor & Francis
3.00%
Others
• Others
51.40%
Scientific disciplines for Elsevier
Environmental Science
Earth Sciences
Social Sciences
Life
Sciences
Mathematics &
Computer Science
Physics
Chemistry
& Chemical
Engineering
Materials Science
& Engineering
Types of contributions
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
Short Communications
important reports of unusual urgency or
original advances in inorganic and
organometallic chemistry for which rapid
publication is justified.
the Introduction, Experimental, Results and
Discussion sections combined into a single
untitled section
Mini Reviews generally upon invitation
planning

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学术思想 aim of research;significance
内容: introduction:切题
experimental:准确,完整,能重复
results and discussion
references:按所选期刊要求
figures and tables
acknowledgement:经费来源,帮助的人、室
supplementary
Basics:下笔之前要注意基本要求
Editors of science journals want all ideas in
language that is directly:
§ to-the-point
§ straightforward
§ in as few words as possible
 In the voice of science
§ clarity is crucial: clear, precise, accurate

简单
扼要
准确
First draft 初稿
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Need not be in English
Just to establish the skeleton, the bones of
the article
Get all ideas down and establish the
sequence of ideas on index cards
Arrange and rearrange the index cards for
the most logical order
A sequence which is clean, precise, and
without repetition
Introduction
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前言
Start broadly: background
Narrow down: related to your project and the
specific question  your aim
How you have tackled the question
experimentally  lead the reader into your
results
Include a review of the literature: newest,
most recent, high listing journals
Experimental
实验
 Repeatable
 Complete
 Weight,
mole, volume, ….data in
correct unit expression as the
journal required
 Instruments: company, model
Results & discussion
 Start
with your findings, reverse to
introduction
 how the results have addressed
your aim:如何从结果获得结论
 对前言所述研究领域的影响如何
前言与讨论之关系
introduction
Conclusion or Summary
 不是摘要的重复;
 重点指出该工作的学术贡献;
 对今后工作的理论指导意义或继续
工作的方向.
Acknowledgement
 经费来源
funding, financial
support
 协助实验者 experimental
assistance
 State Key Laboratory 致谢不够
Supplementary materials
 所有不在正文中的有关数据、
图表、照片等;
 审稿人的参考;
 数据库要求
References
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Do as the journal requires: follow the model:
§author list: last name first or last?
§ year, volume, page or volume, page, year?
§ 标点符号很重要
good referencing--- Avoid plagiarism
Up to date 近年,知名期刊
必须读过
Use a consistent style 格式一致
例一:J. Am. Chem. Soc.  ACS

4. (a) Miao, Q.; Chi, X.; Xiao, S.; Zeis, R.;
Lefenfeld, M.; Siegrist, T.; Steigerwald, M. L.;
Nuckolls, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128,
1340-1345. (b) Aujard, I.; Baltaze, J.-P.;
Baudin, J.-B.; Cogné, E.; Ferrage, F.; Jullien,
L.; Perez, É.; Prévost, V.; Qian, L. M.; Ruel,
O. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 8177-8188.
例二:A book reference

Lin, G.-Q., Li, Y.-M., Chan, A. S. C. Principles
& Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis,
Wiley: New York, 2001.
书名
编辑
出版社,所在城市
出版年份
例三:J. Fluorine Chemistry  Elsevier

[5] E. Castagnino, S. Corsano, B. Serena,
Gazz. Chim. Ital. 113 (1983) 97-99.
Figure
Should include the following:
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The graphical display
The annotation: axes, scale, unit, label,
arrow, numbers, letters……….
The figure title and legend
title first,then a, b, c…in legend
Do not reiterate the contents of a figure
legend in the text
ear
tail
nose
Fore leg
stomach
Hind leg
paw
Fig. 1
No title, legend,
or annotation
Badly placed labels,
too small
A much clearer figure with proper
annotation, legend and a title
tail
Ear
nose
stomach
Hind leg
Fore leg
Paw
Fig. 1 A dog. The essential external anatomy of a
dog is shown; the stomach is an internal organ.
Graph
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A type of figure that provides summary of
numerical data
More direct than data in a table
Useful for showing distribution of data,
highlighting trends, summarizing
relationships,
Characters must be proportional.
与其它不
成比例
太粗
灰色不突出
符号太小
太细
太小
Colour illustrations
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Illustrations can be printed in colour when
they are judged by the Editor to be essential
to the presentation.
Some journals: no charge for the 1st page
No charge for electronic version
Tips for Achieving High-Quality
Published Artwork
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Submit originals ;
Use dark black ink on high-quality, smooth, opaque white paper;
Use lettering that will be no smaller than 5 points at final
reduction. Helvetica or Arial works well for lettering;
Use lines no thinner than 1 point;
When possible, submit artwork that does not have to be reduced
to fit a single column in the journal (3.25 in. across);
Use the best resolution available (graphics plotter, 600 or higher
dpi laser printer);
Avoid textures and shadings.
Table
 Three-line
table format
 Align to the left: for words
 Align to the right: for numbers
 Align according to the decimal
point: for non-intergals
例如
Common mistakes
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Not referring to a figure or table in the text
Referring to data in the text but not
illustrating it with a figure or table
No scales or scale bars in figures
Too much data in one graph or table
Safety notes
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emphasize any unexpected or new hazards
encountered in experimental work reported.
Perchlorate salts of metal complexes with
organic ligands are potentially explosive.
Authors are requested to place a cautionary
note
Chemicals that have to be dealt with in a
hood: fuming, poisonous, toxic,….
abstract
 An
extract of the essence of your
work
 a short statement of what was
discovered, how it was done, how
it fits with other research
 for a communication, 1-2
sentences
 for full paper, brief account of the
results Less than 100 words
Graphical Abstract
 pictogram
§a
§a
and synopsis:
synopsis of maximum 50 words
drawing or reaction scheme (pictogram)
illustrating their work. The pictogram should
measure 55x50 mm for direct reproduction. If
reduction is needed, please make sure that the
illustration is still informative upon reduction.
Keywords

A maximum of six keywords should be
indicated below the abstract to describe
the contents of the manuscript.

Keywords should be selected from the
following classes: theoretical methods,
experimental methods, phenomena,
materials, and applications.
Justification for rapid publication
Usually for communications
 A description of the novelty and
explanation of the reason for rapid
publication
 Real New findings not reported before
 Unusual results
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editing
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Work in team: no one writes or edits well enough to
work alone, the English language is too slippery, you
need other eyes and minds to help you
Avoid repetition:无论多重要,多复杂,多创新,只说
一次!The only acceptable repetition is in the final
summary
Plagiarism: NEVER copy anything from others
without fully acknowledging and referencing
850 words for two-column page
4 illustrations per page
Main reasons for rejection
Language;
 Scope too broad;
 Claim goes beyond the given data;
 Too lengthy with unnecessary details; such as:
§ introduction not to the point
§ discussion of obvious results
 Failed to give appropriate credit to others:
§ good references are important and essential

Things to avoid while editing
Repeated vocabulary
 Unnecessary explanation or description
*too much background or history
*too many details about what was
done, or details about unsuccessful
work
*information about research irrelevant
to the topic
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Avoid using terms like:
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“Novel”
“In our laboratory”
“By us”
“During the research”
“In this group”
“Really, actually, truly,”—ambiguous intensifiers
“Very”  worse than highly, strongly, surprisingly
“A lot, many”
“Fascinating, interesting, important”
etc
Editing verb tense 时态
Simple present tense: all results, as the
finding is an all-time truth 事实
 Present progressive tense: 尽量少用
 Present perfect tense: 可用,但小心
 Simple past tense: for experimental 常用
 主动多于被动
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例子
不正确
正确
Sodium reacted with water
Sodium reacts with water
The results are showing that The results show that
Results showed that
Results show that
Our group has been
proposing that
The reaction was continued
We propose that
The reaction continued
Quick Check List for Authors
Quick Check List for Authors
Submit to the right journal (scope and
prestige)
Submit to one journal only
Submit 1/1 article(1 full article is better
than 2 incomplete articles)
Be specific; mind the process
Pay attention to structure
Pay attention to journal requirements
Check the English!
Paper Submission Platform for
Authors
Author Gateway
http://authors.elsevier.com
•
•
•
Submit your article
Track the status
Personalize your
homepage
Global author
support
Guide for
publishing
your paper
Track your
process
Jnls in terms
of subject
参考文献
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P. Young, Writing and Presenting in English: The
Rosetta Stone of Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam,
2006
D. Holtom and E. Fisher, Enjoy Writing Your
Science Thesis or Dissertation, Imperial College
Press, London, 1999
结束
谢
谢!

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