如何写学术论文 How to start 确定学术思想：研究目标 新，集中，突出，重要性 组织内容材料：materials methods and 写作过程 样板：决定格式与风格 and style 初稿：先把想法写出 修改成文：基本成文 编辑：内容与格式 定稿。 format 样板－－－选择期刊 期刊的发表论文领域Scope of the journal 衡量自己工作水平，选择与水平相当的期刊 太高：退稿 太低：可惜 略高：合适 按照所选期刊的要求着手 communication full paper short note Model or Template MODEL: a paper in the journal that you wish to publish, better by English speaking author Get help from the language, not the science 3 basic characteristics: *Journal must be good; *Within the last 2-3 years; *At least one author is a native speaker of English INOCHE scope “Inorganic Chemistry Communications is an international journal dedicated to the rapid publication of short communications in the major areas of inorganic, organometallic and supramolecular chemistry.” About Elsevier 29% of Chinese science papers in ISI with Elsevier currently Elsevier has 1800+ journals in 50+ subject areas. ISI Market Shares Of Different Publishers (2004) Articles (all subjects) 各出版商所占ISI的论文份额 (2004) (所有学科) • Elsevier 25% Elsevier • Springer 7.70% • Blackwell 5.30% Springer Blackwell American Chemical Wiley Society • Wiley 4.60% • ACS 3.00% • Taylor & Francis America Chemical Society Taylor & Francis 3.00% Others • Others 51.40% Scientific disciplines for Elsevier Environmental Science Earth Sciences Social Sciences Life Sciences Mathematics & Computer Science Physics Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Materials Science & Engineering Types of contributions Short Communications important reports of unusual urgency or original advances in inorganic and organometallic chemistry for which rapid publication is justified. the Introduction, Experimental, Results and Discussion sections combined into a single untitled section Mini Reviews generally upon invitation planning 学术思想 aim of research；significance 内容： introduction：切题 experimental：准确，完整，能重复 results and discussion references：按所选期刊要求 figures and tables acknowledgement：经费来源，帮助的人、室 supplementary Basics：下笔之前要注意基本要求 Editors of science journals want all ideas in language that is directly: § to-the-point § straightforward § in as few words as possible In the voice of science § clarity is crucial: clear, precise, accurate 简单 扼要 准确 First draft 初稿 Need not be in English Just to establish the skeleton, the bones of the article Get all ideas down and establish the sequence of ideas on index cards Arrange and rearrange the index cards for the most logical order A sequence which is clean, precise, and without repetition Introduction 前言 Start broadly: background Narrow down: related to your project and the specific question your aim How you have tackled the question experimentally lead the reader into your results Include a review of the literature: newest, most recent, high listing journals Experimental 实验 Repeatable Complete Weight, mole, volume, ….data in correct unit expression as the journal required Instruments: company, model Results & discussion Start with your findings, reverse to introduction how the results have addressed your aim：如何从结果获得结论 对前言所述研究领域的影响如何 前言与讨论之关系 introduction Conclusion or Summary 不是摘要的重复; 重点指出该工作的学术贡献; 对今后工作的理论指导意义或继续 工作的方向. Acknowledgement 经费来源 funding, financial support 协助实验者 experimental assistance State Key Laboratory 致谢不够 Supplementary materials 所有不在正文中的有关数据、 图表、照片等； 审稿人的参考； 数据库要求 References Do as the journal requires: follow the model: §author list: last name first or last? § year, volume, page or volume, page, year? § 标点符号很重要 good referencing－－－ Avoid plagiarism Up to date 近年，知名期刊 必须读过 Use a consistent style 格式一致 例一：J. Am. Chem. Soc. ACS 4. (a) Miao, Q.; Chi, X.; Xiao, S.; Zeis, R.; Lefenfeld, M.; Siegrist, T.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Nuckolls, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 1340-1345. (b) Aujard, I.; Baltaze, J.-P.; Baudin, J.-B.; Cogné, E.; Ferrage, F.; Jullien, L.; Perez, É.; Prévost, V.; Qian, L. M.; Ruel, O. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 8177-8188. 例二：A book reference Lin, G.-Q., Li, Y.-M., Chan, A. S. C. Principles & Applications of Asymmetric Synthesis, Wiley: New York, 2001. 书名 编辑 出版社，所在城市 出版年份 例三：J. Fluorine Chemistry Elsevier  E. Castagnino, S. Corsano, B. Serena, Gazz. Chim. Ital. 113 (1983) 97-99. Figure Should include the following: The graphical display The annotation: axes, scale, unit, label, arrow, numbers, letters………. The figure title and legend title first，then a, b, c…in legend Do not reiterate the contents of a figure legend in the text ear tail nose Fore leg stomach Hind leg paw Fig. 1 No title, legend, or annotation Badly placed labels, too small A much clearer figure with proper annotation, legend and a title tail Ear nose stomach Hind leg Fore leg Paw Fig. 1 A dog. The essential external anatomy of a dog is shown; the stomach is an internal organ. Graph A type of figure that provides summary of numerical data More direct than data in a table Useful for showing distribution of data, highlighting trends, summarizing relationships, Characters must be proportional. 与其它不 成比例 太粗 灰色不突出 符号太小 太细 太小 Colour illustrations Illustrations can be printed in colour when they are judged by the Editor to be essential to the presentation. Some journals: no charge for the 1st page No charge for electronic version Tips for Achieving High-Quality Published Artwork Submit originals ; Use dark black ink on high-quality, smooth, opaque white paper; Use lettering that will be no smaller than 5 points at final reduction. Helvetica or Arial works well for lettering; Use lines no thinner than 1 point; When possible, submit artwork that does not have to be reduced to fit a single column in the journal (3.25 in. across); Use the best resolution available (graphics plotter, 600 or higher dpi laser printer); Avoid textures and shadings. Table Three-line table format Align to the left: for words Align to the right: for numbers Align according to the decimal point: for non-intergals 例如 Common mistakes Not referring to a figure or table in the text Referring to data in the text but not illustrating it with a figure or table No scales or scale bars in figures Too much data in one graph or table Safety notes emphasize any unexpected or new hazards encountered in experimental work reported. Perchlorate salts of metal complexes with organic ligands are potentially explosive. Authors are requested to place a cautionary note Chemicals that have to be dealt with in a hood: fuming, poisonous, toxic,…. abstract An extract of the essence of your work a short statement of what was discovered, how it was done, how it fits with other research for a communication, 1-2 sentences for full paper, brief account of the results Less than 100 words Graphical Abstract pictogram §a §a and synopsis: synopsis of maximum 50 words drawing or reaction scheme (pictogram) illustrating their work. The pictogram should measure 55x50 mm for direct reproduction. If reduction is needed, please make sure that the illustration is still informative upon reduction. Keywords A maximum of six keywords should be indicated below the abstract to describe the contents of the manuscript. Keywords should be selected from the following classes: theoretical methods, experimental methods, phenomena, materials, and applications. Justification for rapid publication Usually for communications A description of the novelty and explanation of the reason for rapid publication Real New findings not reported before Unusual results editing Work in team: no one writes or edits well enough to work alone, the English language is too slippery, you need other eyes and minds to help you Avoid repetition:无论多重要，多复杂，多创新，只说 一次！The only acceptable repetition is in the final summary Plagiarism: NEVER copy anything from others without fully acknowledging and referencing 850 words for two-column page 4 illustrations per page Main reasons for rejection Language; Scope too broad; Claim goes beyond the given data; Too lengthy with unnecessary details; such as: § introduction not to the point § discussion of obvious results Failed to give appropriate credit to others: § good references are important and essential Things to avoid while editing Repeated vocabulary Unnecessary explanation or description *too much background or history *too many details about what was done, or details about unsuccessful work *information about research irrelevant to the topic Avoid using terms like: “Novel” “In our laboratory” “By us” “During the research” “In this group” “Really, actually, truly,”—ambiguous intensifiers “Very” worse than highly, strongly, surprisingly “A lot, many” “Fascinating, interesting, important” etc Editing verb tense 时态 Simple present tense: all results, as the finding is an all-time truth 事实 Present progressive tense: 尽量少用 Present perfect tense: 可用，但小心 Simple past tense: for experimental 常用 主动多于被动 例子 不正确 正确 Sodium reacted with water Sodium reacts with water The results are showing that The results show that Results showed that Results show that Our group has been proposing that The reaction was continued We propose that The reaction continued Quick Check List for Authors Quick Check List for Authors Submit to the right journal (scope and prestige) Submit to one journal only Submit 1/1 article(1 full article is better than 2 incomplete articles) Be specific; mind the process Pay attention to structure Pay attention to journal requirements Check the English! Paper Submission Platform for Authors Author Gateway http://authors.elsevier.com • • • Submit your article Track the status Personalize your homepage Global author support Guide for publishing your paper Track your process Jnls in terms of subject 参考文献 P. Young, Writing and Presenting in English: The Rosetta Stone of Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006 D. Holtom and E. Fisher, Enjoy Writing Your Science Thesis or Dissertation, Imperial College Press, London, 1999 结束 谢 谢!