Combining ingredients and structures

Report
COMBINING INGREDIENTS
AND STRUCTURES
Lesson 21
Starter Activity
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Recall methods of making – what are they?
Learning Outcomes
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KNOW
The effects of combining different ingredients and the interaction of foods
during preparation and cooking.
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UNDERSTAND
The importance of appropriate proportions on the structure, shape and
volume of mixtures
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BE ABLE TO...
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EXPLAIN methods of making and which recipes they relate to.
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UNDERSTAND how food structures are formed: solutions, suspensions,
emulsions, and gels.
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DISTINGUISH faults in bread , cake, pastry, scones and sauce making.
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MATCH finishing techniques to definitions
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DESCRIBE quality of manufacture key terminology
Lesson 14
Manufacturing
quality and
CAD/CAM
Lesson 23
Labelling and
packaging
Lesson 24 SECE
Lesson 15
Equipment
Lesson 22
Acids, alkaline
and additives
Lesson 25
Technological
Developments
- NANO
Lesson 3 Dips
Lesson 10
Research
Techniques
Lesson 16
PRACTICAL
Cultural breads
Lesson 21
Combining
ingredients
and structures
Lesson 26 & 27
PRACTICE
EXAM
Lesson 4 & 5
Safe storage
Lesson 8 & 9
Design exam
Questions
Lesson 17
Prototypes and
sensory testing
Lesson 20
PRACTICAL
Pastry twist
development
Lesson 6
Standard
components
Lesson 7
PRACTICAL
Bread sticks
Lesson 18
Nutrition and
healthy Eating
Lesson 19
Nutrition and
healthy Eating
Lesson 1 Dips
Lesson 2
PRACTICAL
Dips
Lesson 13
PRACTICAL
Bread and
share
Lesson 11 & 12
Functions of
foods
What does the spec say?
The effects of combining different ingredients
and the interaction of foods during
preparation and cooking
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select and combine
foods/ingredients to achieve
different textures, finishes, shapes,
size and appearance;
understand how the following
food structures are formed:
solutions, suspensions, emulsions,
and gels. Through practical
activities, develop different types
of salad dressings, sauces and cold
desserts;
investigate, through product
development, the use of different
ingredients/quantities/methods of
making;
The importance of appropriate proportions on
the structure, shape and volume of mixtures
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demonstrate how accurate
measurement, ratio and
proportioning affect preparation,
making and shaping of products to
designated criteria to achieve
acceptable outcomes;
investigate the adaptation of
amounts in mixtures: cakes,
pastry, sauces, bread, biscuits;
through experiment, investigation
and product development
understand the importance of
using appropriate amounts and
types of ingredients and
processing techniques to meet
designated criteria and tolerances;
Methods of making
Rubbing in method
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USED FOR - farmhouse fruit cake, raspberry buns,
pastry and rock buns.
MIXING - fat rubbed into the flour
RATIO - half fat and sugar to flour. High
proportion of liquid.
RAISING AGENT – Chemical baking powder or self
raising flour.
TEXTURE - dry, open, crumb.
SHORT CRUST PASTRY –
½ FAT TO FLOUR. E.g.
100g flour to 50g fat
FLAKY PASTRY – ¾ FAT TO
FLOUR. E.g. 100g flour to
75g fat
CHOUX PASTRY – 1/3 FAT
TO FLOUR . E.g.. 75g plain
flour to 25g butter.
Creaming method
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USED FOR – used for Victoria sandwich, Maderia
cake, sponge buns, Dundee cake
MIXING – fat and sugar creamed together
RATIO – 4/4/4/2. (100g marg /flour/sugar and 2
eggs
RAISING AGENT – chemical self raising flour. Air
from creaming.
TEXTURE - fine light, even
Melting method
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USED FOR – gingerbread, flapjacks, brownies
MIXING – fat melted with treacle or syrup or honey
and sugar
RATIO – half or less fat to flour. High proportion of
sugar ingredients
RAISING AGENT – chemical – bicarb soda
TEXTURE - soft, moist, sticky.
Whisking Method
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USED FOR – Swiss roll, sponge, sandwich cake.
MIXING – eggs and sugar whisked together.
RATIO - equal portions of sugar and flour to weight
of eggs ( e.g. 75g (3oz) plain flour, 75g (3oz) sugar,
3 eggs )
RAISING AGENT – air and steam from water in eggs
TEXTURE – light, even, soft.
Structures of food
COLLOIDAL SYSTEM –The structure of some foods involves 2 parts
which have to be held together e.g. Emulsifiers, gelatinisation, foams
and gels.
SOLUTION
When one ingredient becomes part of a Sugar in tea
liquid ingredient. This is not part of the
colloidal system as the mixture dissolves!
SUSPENSION When a solid ingredient is mixed with a
liquid but it does not disappear. It is
suspended. But if making a sauce and
heat is added GELATINISATION occurs.
White sauce, cheese
sauce.
GELS
A really thick viscous solution. A liquid
held in a solid network.
Marmalade, jelly, jam
FOAMS
Formed when air is mixed in a liquid .
Bubbles of gas trapped in a liquid
Meringue nests,
Whipped cream,ice
creams
Oily and watery liquids mixed together.
Salad dressing,
Mayonnaise,
margarine, salad cream
EMULSIONS
Faults
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Bread
Cake
Pastry
Biscuit/ scone
Sauce
1. Faults in bread making
FAULT
REASONS
SMALL and
DENSE
1. Insufficient fermentation
2. Too little water causes dough too stiff to allow
expansion
3. Inactive yeast – not enough CO2 gas produced
Is HARD and
COURSE in
texture
1. Dough has been over fermented – breakdown of gas
pockets in dough due to increase in pressure from
the CO2 gas. The gas pockets break down and release
the gas to form large uneven holes.
NOT RISEN
1. Yeast has been killed before loaf has been baked.
2. Faults in cake making – select 3 and
draw the result
FAULT
CLOSE, HEAVY
TEXTURE
REASONS
1. Insufficient raising agent was used
2. Mixture too wet
3. Overbeating after adding flour or liquid.
UNEVEN RISING 1. Tin placed unevenly near source of heat in oven
CRACKED TOP
OR PEAK
1. Tin too small for mixture
2. Oven too hot
SUNKEN CAKE
1. Too much raising agent – gluten overstretched and
then collapsed before had time to set
2. Removing cake from oven before it was cooked
BURNT CRUST
1. Oven too hot
2. Cooked too long
3. Cake tin too thin
3. Faults in Pastry making
FAULT
TOO HARD and
TOUGH
BLISTERED
PASTRY
REASONS
1. Ingredients were too warm.
2. Over kneading and heavy handling.
3. Incorrect proportion of ingredients e.g. too much water in
shortcrust pastry, too little water in flaky pastry.
4. Oven temperature too cool.
1. Uneven mixing of water.
2. Oven set too high a temperature.
3. Fats insufficiently and unevenly rubbed into the flour.
SHRUNK PASTRY
DURING
COOKING
1. The pastry has been stretched during preparation and rolling.
FRAGILE AND
CRUMBLY WHEN
COOKED
1. Too much fat.
2. Over rubbing fat into flour.
3. Too little flour.
4. Faults in Scone making
FAULT
SPREAD and HAVE
LOST SHAPE
REASON
1. Too soft a dough due to too much liquid.
2. Incorrect kneading.
HEAVY and POORLY 1. Insufficient raising agent.
RISEN
2. Insufficient liquid.
3. Too heavy handling.
4. Oven temperature too cool.
5. Baked too low in oven.
ROUGH SURFACE
after baking
1. Incorrect kneading.
2. Rough handling.
5. Faults in Sauce making
FAULTS
THIN SAUCE
LUMPY SAUCE
REASON
1. Undercooked
2. Will have the flavour of raw starch –
gelatinisation has not occurred (about 95°C)
1. Stirring or whisking of mixture too slow
2. Too high a heat
TOO THICK SAUCE 1. Overcooked – the water has evaporated
Gelatinisation of starch
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Starch particles will not dissolve in liquid
The liquid must be HEATED so the particles will swell
and rupture.
At 60°C liquid is ABSORBED by starch.
The particles SOFTEN and SWELL to up to five times
their original size
Heating continues to 80°C. The particles RUPTURE,
releasing starch.
The mixture becomes THICK and VISCOUS.
The starch has GELATINISED ( a gel has formed)
When cool the gel SETS and the sauce becomes SOLID.
Finishing techniques
Making a QUALITY outcome –
1.
CONSISTENCY
2.
ACCURACY
Glazes – match up the glaze with the
suitable food
BEATEN EGG
MILK
SUGAR SYRUP
HONEY AND ORANGE
Pastry Glazes
1.
2.
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SWEET PASTRY – brushed with milk or beaten egg
white
SAVOURY PASTRY –brushed with milk or beaten
egg and salt or egg wash ( equal quantities of egg
yolk and water).
Savoury pastry - should have a GLOSSIER and
DARKER BROWN glaze compared to sweet
Garnishes – For at least 1 in each section of
garnishes state what food it could be used with.
HERBS
OTHERS
FRUITS
Decoration – Match the picture with
the title
REDCURRANTS
CHOCOLATE CURLS
DUSTED ICING
SUGAR
PIPING
FEATHERING
CHOCOLATE LEAVES
Decorations for Pastry
ROPE PIECRUST
EDGE FINISHES
LATTICE TOP
FORKED EDGE
SPIRAL TOP
TOP DECORATION
FLUTED PINCHED EDGE
CUT OUT SHAPES
Toppings for bread - Match the picture
with the title
POPPY SEEDS
CHOPPED
NUTS
FLOUR
SESAME SEEDS GRATED CHEESE
Finishing Techniques - The appearance
of a food product is essential
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PIPING: fresh cream, chocolate and mashed potato can be piped using
bags and nozzles to create an attractive and professional design
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BROWNING: uses fats, eggs, sugar, milk, flour or oil, which darken a
food when heated
GLAZING: a glaze is a smooth shiny coating which gives an attractive
finish, e.g. jam can be warmed and used to cover a fruit flan.
EGG-WASH GLAZING: a mixture of milk and egg brushed onto pastry
before cooking gives a shiny golden finish.
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CHOCOLATE: chocolate swirls, grated chocolate and other chocolate
shapes can add interest to a dessert.
ICINGS: different icings can add colour and texture to sweet baked
products such as: butter cream, glace icing, fondant icing, fudge icing,
etc. To create a professional finish.
Quality of manufacture
Match the answer to the description
TYPE OF CHECK
VISUAL CHECKS
ORGANOLEPTIC CHECK
CHEMICAL CHECK
MICRO- BIOLOGICAL
CHECK
WHAT IT IS
Samples tested for levels of bacteria.
Samples are checked regularly to ensure
accurate temperature control .
Metal detectors are used at the packaging
stage.
Weight tested at packaging stage.
WEIGHT CHECK
Samples of final product tested for flavour,
texture and aroma.
TEMPERATURE CHECK
Some foods tested for acidity or alkalinity.
PH CHECK
METAL CHECK
Raw ingredients checked for quality and
colour.
Samples tested to ensure they are
contamination – free.
Review – Self assessment – R/A/G
Methods of
making
Structures of
foods
Faults
Finishing
Techniques
Quality of
manufacture

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