Bloodborne Pathogens Are You Protected? Bloodborne Pathogen Bloodborne – carried by and lives in human blood or other bodily fluids ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Blood Semen Feces Urine Vomit Pathogen – a microorganism that can cause disease Types of Pathogens Virus – parasitic microscopic protein Bacteria – one celled organism Fungus – single or multi-celled organism Protozoa – primitive single-celled organism ◦ AIDS, Hepatitis, Herpes, Bird Flu ◦ Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Staph Infection ◦ Ringworm, Athlete’s Foot ◦ Malaria, Giardia How Pathogens Enter the Body Ingestion 2. Punctures, cuts, abrasions, and other non-intact skin. 3. Mucous Membranes 1. • • • • Mouth Nose Eyes Sexual Contact Your Potential Workplace Exposure First Aid Responder Janitorial Duties First Aid First aid training Good Samaritan Collateral duty* Not covered by BBP standard applies BBP Standard * if First-Aid response is an expected part of the job Designated responder BBP standard applies HEPATITIS A Acquired primarily through the fecal-oral route. Causes an infection of the liver. Cannot be distinguished from other forms of Hepatitis without testing. The “restaurant” hepatitis. HEPATITIS B Contracted from contact with blood or other bodily fluids. 100 times more contagious than Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Can live in a dry environment for at least 7 days Some people can be carriers and never get sick, but they can infect others. There is no cure, but there is a preventative vaccine. Hepatitis B Very infectious ◦ 1/3 no symptoms, 1/3 flu-like, 1/3 severe ◦ 6 to 10% of cases infectious for life (carrier state) In the past, 140,000-300,000 new infections per year ◦ 5,000-6,000 deaths/yr from chronic liver disease HEPATITIS C Spread by infected blood or other bodily fluids. 85% of Hepatitis C infections persist for life Once contracted, over 70% of cases become chronic. No preventative vaccine. Current risk rate of contraction is 1 in 10,000. HEPATITIS C 4 million Americans infected Only 25% of those infected have been diagnosed Carrier state can develop with or without symptoms Carrier state can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis (10 year latency), or cancer (alcohol is strong co-factor) Leading cause of liver transplant in U.S. HEPATITIS C Signs and symptoms may not appear until 10 years after infection Onset of symptoms may present with severe liver disease No broadly effective treatment No vaccine available HEPATITIS- A,B,&C Heating foods above 1800 F for one minute will kill the virus. Good hygiene (washing hands and face) in the best prevention method. A 10% bleach solution if also an excellent disinfectant. Signs and Symptoms of Hepatitis Flu-like fatigue and loss of appetite Fever, nausea, and joint pain Headaches Jaundice Dark colored urine Light colored stool Hepatitis B Infected Liver Normal Hepatitis B Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Spread by exchange of blood or other bodily fluids. Attacks the body’s immune system. Can live in a dry environment for only a few hours Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) > 1 million infections in U.S. 138 cases of possible occupational transmission Infected persons may be asymptomatic for years. Usually develops into Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Signs and Symptoms of HIV and AIDS After infection a person will experience flu-like symptoms, then they may become asymptomatic for years. When symptoms do appear they are usually in the form of weight loss, fatigue, night sweats and fever. As the disease progresses the infected person usually dies from an opportunistic infection or cancer due to their weakened immune system. How Do You Protect Yourself? Exposure Control Plan Use the Universal Precaution Work Practice Controls Engineering Controls Personal Protective Equipment Exposure Control Plan Hepatitis Post B vaccination exposure evaluation & follow-up Communication Recordkeeping and training UNIVERSAL PRECAUTION Treat all potentially infectious material as if it contained bloodborne pathogens! Work Practice Controls Controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering how a task is performed. Examples: ◦ Washing hands after coming into contact with potentially infectious materials. ◦ Not eating, drinking, or smoking in areas where potentially infectious materials are located. ◦ Decontaminating work surfaces after use. Housekeeping Maintain a clean and sanitary workplace Written cleaning and decontamination schedule Contaminated waste disposal methods Laundry Engineering Controls Controls that reduce employee exposure by either removing the hazard, or by isolating the employee. Examples: ◦ Using a dust pan or tongs to pick up broken glass. ◦ Using biohazard disposal containers to dispose of potentially infectious materials. Biohazard Bag Personal Protective Equipment Specialized clothing or equipment used for protection against infectious materials. Examples: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Gloves Protective Eyewear Face shields Mouthpieces and Resuscitation Devices All PPE will be provided to you at no personal cost. PPE Gloves Latex Nitrile Vinyl Utility Vaccinations The Hepatitis vaccination is given as a series of three injections, whose schedule will be determined by a doctor. The Hepatitis B vaccine prevents Hepatitis B in 85 – 95% of the people who get all three shots. Hepatitis B Vaccination Make Hepatitis B vaccination available »Declination statement required »Available at later date if desired No cost to employees Reasonable time and place If series is interrupted, continue at any time rather than restart series Recordkeeping Medical records »HBV vaccination status »Written medical opinion of exposure incidents »Exposure incident details »Maintain for length of employment + 30 years Recordkeeping Training records »Dates »Content summary »Trainer name & qualifications »Attendee’s names & job titles »Maintain for 3 years If you are exposed: 1. 2. 3. Wash cuts with soap and water. Flush splashes to the nose, mouth, or skin with water. Flush out eyes with clean water or saline. If you are exposed 4. 5. 6. 7. Notify your supervisor immediately. Seek medical attention. Fill out a Supervisor’s Injury/Exposure Report. Fill out an Affidavit of Possible Exposure to Reportable Disease/Follow Up Form. Questions?