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Bluetooth
Architecture and Applications
Chris Greco, Wesley Kunzler, Koy Rehme,
Zhuo Ruan
Bluetooth Stack
Bluetooth Radio (Link Layer)
• 2.4 GHz
• 79 channels
– 1 MHz spacing
– 23 channels in some
countries
• Gaussian Frequency
Shift Keying
• RSSI (Receiver
Signal Strength
Indicator)
Baseband (Physical Layer)
• Pseudorandom hopping sequence
• Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO)
– Audio
• Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL)
– Data
• Error Correction
– 1/3 rate FEC
– 2/3 rate FEC
– ARQ scheme
Baseband (Physical Layer)
• Connection Modes: Active, Sniff, Hold, Park
• Device Addressing
– Bluetooth Device Address (48 bits)
– Active Member Address (3 bits)
– Parked Member Address (8 bits)
– Access Request Address
• Synchronization requires:
– Channel hopping sequence
– Phase
– Channel Access Code
Link Manager Protocol (LMP)
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Manages connections and pairings
Authentication
Pairing
Key change
Encryption
Detaching
Power Control
… and much more!
Host Controller Interface (HCI)
Host Controller Interface (HCI)
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Hardware Status and Registers
Bluetooth-specific commands
Flow Control
Error Recovery
Transport Layers (RS-232, UART, USB)
Logical Link Control and
Application Protocol (L2CAP)
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Designed only for ACL links (i.e. no Audio)
Segmentation and Reassembly
Quality of Service
Piconet operation
RFCOMM
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Emulates RS-232 over L2CAP protocol
Accommodates types 1 and 2 devices
Supports up to 60 emulated serial ports
Does not suffer from low-power mode
latency delays
• Serial-Bluetooth adapters available
– Easily convert to wireless
• Allows for internet-type services
Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)
• Determine which services are available
and their characteristics (services)
– Universally Unique Identifiers (UUIDs)
– Searching for services
– Browsing for services
• List of capabilities sent during pairing
• Baby monitor
• Wristwatch communicator – 007 style
• Serial port extender
• PDA Chat
• Audio extender (speaker in other room)
• Indoor/outdoor thermometer / home weather
station
• Palatometer
Socket Corp.
(a)
(b)
Socket’s CF Ruggedized Serial I/O Card with high-speed serial drivers
Accessory hardware including power adapter, null modem adapter
Software tools including Socket’s Bluetooth 1.1 Certified Stack for
Windows CE devices
NOTE: Socket’s Bluetooth Stack Dev Tools allow developers to write
applications that are Bluetooth aware. These Tools provide built-in
screens for doing device discovery and pairing.
$5000
BlueGiga WT11 BT Module
• Bluetooth® Class 1
• Two antenna options: internal chip antenna or U.FL
connector
• Up to 2-3Mbps
• USB version 2.0 compliant
• UART with bypass mode
• 8Mb of flash memory
• RoHS compliant
• Control with ASCII commands, or GPIO, or UART
Serial or USB interface
$53
$625
Expected shipping date: 01/26/07
Bluepacket 2037 Module
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Arm7 processor
Class 1
Firmware embedded
Integrated MP3 decode
• No answer when called
READY Intl Corp.
(a)
(b)
Toothpic DARC-I:
BTEVAL:
(Remotely Configurable Data
Acquisition and Remote Control
Module)
(Bluetooth evaluation board)
Tooth PIC module, Serial data I/O
Build-in RS232, TTL converter
PWM-digital/parallel output control
ICD2 programming socket
Analog/digital/parallel input control
24C256 Memory
Capture of frames of input data up to
5K samples / sec
Price: $179
Price: $64.70
READY Intl Corp.
(c)
Toothpick DARC-II (Data Acquire& Remote Control with User Interface Server)
Developer interface tools
1. Bluetooth application development
2. On-line analyzer for running remote devices
3. Price: $474
Make Bluetooth Work for You: Build a
Sample Chat Application
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Visual Studio .NET 2003 Final Beta
Two Pocket PCs with Bluetooth
Microsoft ActiveSync 3.6
Prices: $400~500
Rabbit Semiconductor BT Kit
• Comes with 30 MHz
uC
• Serial UART control
– up to 115kbps
• Complete with
sample applications
and source code
• $340
Avnet DS-KIT-P160-COMM3
• Xilinx FPGA on board
(Microblaze)
• Flash, SRAM, ADC,
DAC, Ethernet
$225
• “Easy to use Bluetooth
module” (921 kbps
UART interface)

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