Parents T t T TT Tt T TT Tt TT x Tt All are expected to be tall In the punnett square above what would be the result of the offspring? Independent assortment A male and female bison that are heterozygous for normal skin Aa pigmentation produce an albino offspring aa which Mendel’s principles explains why the offspring in albino? What is shown below? Crossing Over Four cells Different Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of how many cells and are they identical or different? Whether a trait is inherited How treats are passed from one generation to the next Determine dominant and recessive alleles A pedigree can be used to determine what? C Which of the following genotypes result in the same phenotype? A. I^A I^A and I^A I^B B. I^B I^B and I^A I^B C. I^B I^B and I^B i D. I^B i and ii They usually have some normal hemoglobin in their red blood cells People who are heterozygous for sickle cell disease are generally healthy because? The allele for colorblindness is recessive and on the X chromosome. In terms of sex chromosomes X and Y . Males and females have what chromosomes? Colorblindness is more common in males than in females because? Cure genetic disorders The purpose of gene therapy is to? C Climate is a global factor that produces? A. Earths ocean and atmosphere B. Shape and elevation of landmasses C. A wide range of environmental conditions that shape communities. D. Solar energy within the atmosphere. Greenhouse Effect Temperature on Earth remains within a suitable range for life as we know it because of? Cancer Decrease resistance to disease Damage eyes Overexposure to UV radiation can cause? Global Warming An increase in Earth’s average temperature from buildup of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere is called? The major cause of ozone depletion is? Chloroflourcarbons Limited Supply ( cant make more) Why are fossil fuels nonrenewable? B According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to A. Possession of adaptations developed through use. B. Possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness C. Lack of competition within species Interbreeding among members of a population results in No change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool The two main sources of genetic variation are Gene shuffling Mutations In a population of finches in which one group of birds has a short, parrot like beak and another group has a long, narrow beak, what process has probably occurred? A. B. C. D. Directional selection Disruptive selection Stabilizing Genetic drift B Which factor would most likely disrupt genetic equilibrium in a large population? A. The production of large numbers of offspring B. Mating that is not random C. The absence of movement into and out of the population D. The absence of mutations B A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species Reproductive isolation Geographic isolation The first organisms on Earth were most like today’s Bacteria A single species that has evolved into several different forms that live in different ways has undergone Adaptive Radiation What does the presence of similar genes in very dissimilar organisms imply? Share a common ancestor Some scientists propose that kingdom protista should be broken up into several kingdoms. Which of these statements accurately supports the idea. A. Protists are all very similar and easy to confuse B. Protista contain very diverse organisms that do not fit into the other kingdoms C. Protista evolved before any other kingdom B Compare and Contrast Explain on a lined piece of paper why daughter cells produced by meiosis are genetically different from each other, whereas the daughter cells produced by mitosis are not. (hint: use diagrams on wall) The pedigree shows the inheritance of free earlobes and attached earlobes in five generations of a family. Attached earlobes are caused by recessive alleles. Is individual 2 homozygous or heterozygous for free earlobes? Explain. The individual is heterozygous (Ff), since her daughter has attached earlobes. The daughter inherited one allele for attached earlobes from individual 2 and another from individual 1. How many children of individuals 4 and 5 have attached earlobes? None of those children have attached earlobes. Can you be certain of the genotype of individual 5? Explain. No, the genotype of individual 5 is uncertain because his children have free earlobes. Thus, individual 5 could be homozygous (FF) or heterozygous (Ff) for free earlobes. If, however, one of his children had attached earlobes, it would be certain that individual 5 was heterozygous. Predict the genotype and phenotype of individual 14. Individual 14 will be homozygous for the recessive allele (ff) and will have attached earlobes. Are any of the descendants of individuals 1 and 2 homozygous for free earlobes? No, none of the descendants are homozygous (FF) for free earlobes. Examine the graph above. It charts the yield of a farm over several years. In 1975 a pesticide was applied for the first time. It was reapplied in 1980 at the same dosage and in 1990 at twice the original dosage. In 1995, a new pesticide was applied. Provide an explanation for the pattern shown by the metric tons? Comparison of Two Vertebrates Characteristics Shark Dolphin Habitat ocean ocean Type of vertebrate Composition of skeleton fish mammal Respiration breathes in water cartilage bone breathes in air Charles Darwin would say that sharks like the one on the previous slide exhibit fitness. Explain what that means, and discuss two specific adaptations as part of your explanation. (1) Sharks have an overall body shape that enables them to move rapidly through water. (2) Sharks have a large tail and fins that provide balance and enable them to steer. (3) Sharks have teeth that make them successful predators. Evidence indicates that dolphins evolved from ancestors that walked on land. How can the concept of natural selection be used to explain the evolution of the present-day dolphin body? The dolphin’s land-dwelling ancestors were probably made up of populations with different body shapes and limbs. Those land-dwellers began to spend more time in the ocean, perhaps because food was easier to find. In each generation, those with bodies that moved efficiently in water survived longer and produced more offspring than others. Eventually, the whole population came to resemble today’s dolphins. Sharks and dolphins, which belong to different vertebrate groups, are not closely related. How can Darwin’s ideas about evolution help explain such a similar appearance? Darwin proposed that over time, natural selection made a population more fit for its environment. Sharks and dolphins both live in the ocean, where natural selection favors organisms that move efficiently through water. If you wanted to find out whether sharks and dolphins share homologous structures, what structures would you examine? Explain. Although their skeletons are made of different materials, there are likely to be homologous structures in the skull, backbone, and limbs. There may also be homologous structures among internal organs such as heart, brain, and digestive system. Suppose a dolphin population becomes trapped in a harbor that is growing smaller and more shallow because of climate changes. Is it likely that the dolphins would evolve into a landdwelling species in a few thousand years? Explain your answer. It is not likely: (1) Darwin emphasized that evolution usually requires millions, not thousands, of years. (2) The bodies of dolphins are well adapted to life in water, with little observable variation; it’s unlikely that the population’s relevant characteristics could change in just thousands of years. Background Information: You are assigned to participate in a conservation project in Brazil located near the equator. The climate is wet usually 60 to 80 inches of rain per year. There are a large amount of organisms that live in the tropical environment. Two-thirds of Earth’s animal and plant species are found in a rain forests. The rain forest environment consist of tall, broad-leaved evergreen trees that form a leafy canopy, as a result, there is restricted undergrowth in rain forests because lack of sunlight at ground level. The food resources are dispersed due to high diversity in the region. You arrive in Brazil to study the various species in this environment. One particular population in the rain forest, iguanas. They possess the following characteristics, sharp, clawed feet; thick, leathery skin; greenish-brown color; long tail; finely-serrated teeth; thick, slightly-forked tongue; and very good eye sight. They live high in the canopy but can spend long periods of time under water. They are classified as a omnivore. It lays between 20 and 70 eggs at a time in warm moist soil. These eggs undergo a 3 month incubation period. Year Co2 Concentration 1750 275 1800 280 1850 287 1900 303 1950 310 2000 382 1. Given the environment, explain what evolutionary factors contributed to at least 5 of the characteristics. 2. Utilizing the chart and graph to infer what human activity could have contributed to the rise in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere 3. How might this activity directly affect the population of iguanas in addition to the rain forest itself? 4. If the atmosphere continues to change at its current rate, what adaptations must occur for the iguanas to become better suited for their new environment?