Slide 1

Report
2e Periodic reporting exercise for
Europe
Sub-regional workshop for
Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe
Tbilissi
14 – 16 November 2012
Management of World Heritage properties
•Key requirement for inscription on the World
heritage List (along with OUV + authenticity,
integrity)
•Frequent requests from Committee to States
Parties in reactive monitoring process to develop
“management plans” or similar vehicles
SOC analysis; WHC 2009
Pourcentage de biens affectés par chaque principal
groupe de menaces (de 2005 à 2009, de gauche à
droite)
First steps of management system requirement
• Management system became a necessity and
have been required since years 90
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Increasing number of properties
Increase of heritage typologies’ variety
Change of scale
Decentralisation from central governement to local
authorities
– Growing private sector
– Protection laws are not enough efficient at such scales
But in Europe, very few countries took initiative
Operational guidelines – par. 108 - 118
• The purpose of a management system is to
ensure the effective protection of the nominated
property for present and future generations.
•
Each nominated property should have an
appropriate management plan or other
documented management system which must
specify how the Outstanding Universal Value of a
property should be preserved, preferably through
participatory means.
OP : variety of management systems
• An effective management system depends on the type,
characteristics and needs of the nominated property and its
cultural and natural context. Management systems may
vary according to different cultural perspectives, the
resources available and other factors.
• They may incorporate traditional practices, existing urban
or regional planning instruments, and other planning
control mechanisms, both formal and informal. Impact
assessments for proposed interventions are essential for all
World Heritage properties.
Some principles : no unique model
• matching choice of planning vehicles to planning context and
cultural context: complex historic city or cultural landscape?
single public sector authority managing designated historic
site? traditional forms of management in place?
• showing relations among existing planning vehicles,
(whatever they are called) and how together, these ensure
respect for OUV
Some principles
3 key points
• ensuring that management is “integrated”: co-ordination
among different sectors around concern for OUV. Holistic
approach
• ensuring management vehicles for safeguarding OUV are
developed to the extent possible with the full involvement of
stakeholders and those who must implement these vehicles
• A continuous process and not a static event
Some principles:
• avoiding developing planning instruments that
have no authority (“management plans” without
an implementing authority, sitting on a shelf
somewhere)
• avoiding creating World Heritage site management
institutions unless integrated appropriately within
overall management system
• Link preservation to sustainable development
(OP):
OP : management plan includes:
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a) a thorough shared understanding of the property by all
stakeholders;
b) a cycle of planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation
and feedback;
c) the monitoring and assessment of the impacts of trends,
changes, and of proposed interventions;
d) the involvement of partners and stakeholders;
e) the allocation of necessary resources;
f)
capacity-building;
g) an accountable, transparent description of how the
management system functions.
Effective management involves a cycle of short, medium and
long-term actions
Key stages for a management process
• 1 Getting stakeholders agreement on the
approach and organise « governance »
• 2 Understand poperty’s values (and attributes)
• 3 Developing a share vision
• 4 Defining management objectives on the basis
of diagnostic
• 5 Identifying actions and agreeing on the
management strategy
• 6 Monitoring, evaluation, adaptation
Boundaries
Historic monuments – archeological sites:
good experience in every country 1
• Diagnostic
– state of conservation,
– legislation and rules,
– fonction and use
• Identifying the threats
• Knowledge
– Historic, archeological analysis
– Scientific analysis (biology..)
• Protection
– The monument
– The surroundings
Historic monuments – archeological sites:
management plan 2
• Conservation/restauration
– « Theoretical » choices
– Methodologies
– Skills identification
• Enhancement/education
– Tools : site museum, intepretation center, publications,
smartphone applications…
– Educational activities
– Communication
Historic monuments – archeological sites MP 3
• Tourism
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Capacity of charge analysis
gestion de flux de visiteurs (Zoning, circulation plan)
Evaluation prospective fréquentation)
visitors security,
visitors facilities (parkings..)
communication, marketing
Involving local communities
• Gouvernance, human ressources and funds
• Monitoring, evaluation
Historic cities
Historic cities
• The largest heritage category on the WH list (deb
2010 : 250 sur 890
• Evolution of category:
From group of buildings
physical objects to be protected and conserved in isolation
To inhabited historic towns
(OG)
as places of inhabitation and social and economic activity in which
individual cutural objects are recognized as components within
their wider settings and human context
Then Historic urban landscapes (Recommandation)
a stratification of previous and current urban dynamics, with an
interplay between the natural and built environment
Management of these large scale areas
• Authenticity, integrity
– Mainly social-fonctional:
– Referred to identification of the fonctions and processes on
which its development over time has been based
- Spatial and historical stratification
• Analysis of significance: complexity
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Tangible and intangible, natural and cultural
Multidisciplinary
Using both professional expertise and local knowledge
= more difficult to identify « attributes », elements that
constitute OUV.
Other principles for cities and cultural landscapes 1
• Large number and specific quality of stakeholders
– People associated with the cultural/urban landscape
and economic forces are the primary stakeholders for
stewardship
• Specific importance of governance:
dialogue and agreement among stakeholders is a key
for successfull management (« co-management »)
• Focus of management is on guiding change
to retain the values and not on how to protect values
• Management
–
-
Supposes that the attributes that embody value are clearly
identified and reflects an understanding of the correlation
between value and decision-making
Depends on economical reality
Is linked with the surroudings
Needs a global approach
and adapts to the complexity of factors that interact at heritage
sites
Enlargement of authenticity concept
1
From ICOMOS Venice charter
1964
To Nara Declaration
1994
Authenticity : evolution of the concept
1980 - 2005
2005 - ..
And now? « Less is more »
Forms
Matérials
Techniques
context
Forms
Uses
Fonctions
Traditions
Techniques
Management
systems
Language
Genius loci
Intangible
heritage
24
Thank you

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