Confined Space Training

Report
Confined Space Entry
Presented by:
RIT Environmental
Health & Safety
Department
Confined Space Hazard History

Training and proper planning are critical for safe
confined space entry

Average of 67 fatalities in confined spaces annually
–
Up to 60% of the fatalities are would be rescuers
 (why we will not be doing emergency rescue that
requires entering the space)
Confined Space Hazard History



Virginia Beach, VA –one worker killed and one FF killed
in a ship hold. Worker died because of compressor
failure, firefighter died during rescue attempt
Phoenix, Arizona- one worker and one FF killed. Fourteen
other FF injured during a rescue attempt from an above
ground storage tank
Both in different locations, all different rescues, however all
had the same results, death and injury occurred to would
be rescuers. These all occurred while performing rescues
from a silent and potentially deadly killer-confined spaces.
Confined Space Entry-Physiological and
Psychological Considerations

Entering confined spaces can be a dangerous and stressful
situation. There may be physical constraints and in many
cases hazards you can encounter. These can cause physical,
physiological and psychological burdens on the person
entering.

Some common reactions-Anxiety, claustrophobia, panic
Confined Space Entry-Physiological and
Psychological Considerations

For some these conditions could escalate inside a confined
space and result in injury or illness to the person in the
space, and could lead to a scenario requiring the person to
be rescued.

If you know that you react with anxiety, have panic attacks,
or experience claustrophobic tendencies, DON’T enter
confined spaces.
Confined Space Entry
• General Industry Standard
1910.146
• Best Practices for all Industries
Confined Space Definition
A space that:

Is large enough and configured so employee can bodily
enter; AND

Has a limited/restricted means for entry or exit; AND

Is not designed for continuous occupancy.

Is greater than 5 feet in depth
Note: The space has to be all to be classified as a confined
space.
Not Designed for Continuous Worker
Occupancy
• Most confined spaces are not
designed to enter and work in on
a regular basis.
• Product storage
• Enclose materials or processes
• Transport products or substances
• Occasional worker entry for
inspection, repair, cleanup,
maintenance, etc.
Limited and/or Restricted Access


No clear definition in the regulations
For RIT purposes, “limited or restricted means for
entry or exit” corresponds to those entryways that
have:
– a lip (threshold) of greater than six inches in height,
– a width of less than two feet, and/or
– the total door height is less than five and one-half
feet
Entering Non-Permit Required
Confined Spaces
RIT Employees may enter a non-permit required
confined space without any prior EH&S
authorization, however safety procedures outlined in
this plan and for the individual space must be
followed.
Entering Non-Permit Required
Confined Spaces (cont.)
Those procedures may include, but are not limited to:
 2 way communication via cell phone or radio
 Notification to FMS Call Center during normal
business hours or your Group Leader after hours
 Notification shall include time you are entering and
when you expect to exit
 If space is one that has been reclassified from a
permit required space, a copy of the completed
reclassification permit shall be faxed to EH&S x 2966
within 2 business days.
How to Identify “ Non-Permit-Required”
Confined Spaces
Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required”
Confined Space

In order to avoid going through the formal “Permit-Required”
confined space entry program and associated testing and
monitoring, a “Permit-Required” confined space may be
reclassified as “Non-Permit-Required” confined space.

This only applies to “Permit-Required” confined spaces that
pose no actual or potential atmospheric hazards and all other
spaces where hazards can be eliminated from outside of the
space without requiring entry into the space to eliminate those
hazards.
Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined
Space (cont.)

In order to re-classify a permit required confined
space, a Reclassification of a Permit-Required
Confined Space-Hazard Elimination Certificate
must be filled out and posted at the job site. (Forms
found on EH&S website.)

EH&S must be notified of all Permit-Required
Confined Space Re-Classifications. If space is one
that has been reclassified from a permit required
space, a copy of the completed reclassification
permit shall be faxed to EHS x 2966 within 2
business days.
Mechanical/Physical
Hazard Elimination
Certificate
Atmospheric &
Mechanical/Physical
Hazard Elimination
Certificate
Unusual confined spaces
Permit-Required Confined Space
Definition
Must fall under the definition of a confined space
and has one or more of the following hazards:
Electrical
or Mechanical Hazard
Unfavorable
Oxygen
Natural Ventilation
deficient atmosphere (<19.5%) or
enriched atmosphere (>23.5%)
Permit-Required Confined Space
Definition (cont.)





Toxic atmosphere (Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon
Monoxide)
Thermal: Temperature Extremes
Flammable or explosive atmosphere ( at or above 10%
LEL)
Engulfment potential
Sloping or inwardly converging floors, Noise,
Slick/Wet Surfaces, Falling Objects
Typical Permit Required Confined Spaces
• Boiler,
Degreaser, Furnace,
Tanks
• Pipeline, Pit, Pumping Station
• Reaction or Process Vessel
• Sewer, Utility Vault,
Manhole
• Trenches,
Shafts, Caissons
How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined
Spaces
RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each
confined space that has been classified as a “Permit-required”
confined space is posted with the following sign:
Permit-Required
Confined Space
DO NOT ENTER
For Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety at 475-2040
In Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at 475-3333 V/TTY
Entering “Permit Required” Confined
Spaces



No entry without an RIT permit. (Permit forms
will be available by contacting EH&S only)
Permit must be written and posted at the job site.
Permit is used to:
–
–
–
prevent unauthorized entry
identify and evaluate the hazards
ensure safe practices
Entering Permit Required Confined Spacesthat can NOT be reclassified

If an employee needs to enter a confined space
that is classified as “permit required”, they must
first follow the procedures outlined in the PermitRequired Confined Space Entry Plan.

This type of entry requires a minimum of 48 hour
notification to EH&S, unless it is an emergency.
Confined Space Hazards – Electrical and/or
Mechanical Hazards


A confined space may include equipment or conditions
that could lead to mechanical or physical hazards
Mechanical
Electrical
Paddles
Non-explosion proof lighting
Blades
Broken lighting or other equipment
Shafts and Augers
Electrical sensing devices
Chain or Belt Drives
Limit switches and Level indicating devices
Hydraulic or pneumanic energy
Hazards from equipment taken into the space
These conditions need to be properly controlled prior to
entry into the space.
Confined Space Hazards - Unfavorable
Natural Ventilation
•Lack of air movement in and out of the space can
create an atmosphere much different than the
outside atmosphere.
•Deadly gases can be trapped inside.
•Organic materials can decompose.
•Decreased oxygen level
•Presence of other gases
•Chemical reactions such as rusting
•Worker(s) consumption rate of oxygen
Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Deficient
Atmospheres
19.5 %
15 - 19%
12-14%
10-12%
8-10%
6-8%
4-6%
Minimum acceptable oxygen level.
Decreased ability to work strenuously.
Impair coordination. Early symptoms.
Respiration increases.
Respiration increases. Lips blue.
Mental failure. Fainting. Nausea
Unconsciousness. Vomiting.
6 minutes - 50% fatality
4-5 minutes - possible recovery.
Coma in 40 seconds. Death.
Confined Space Hazards - Oxygen Enriched
Atmospheres
•Oxygen level above 23.5%.
•Causes flammable and combustible materials to
burn violently when ignited.
•Hair, clothing, materials, etc.
•Oil soaked clothing and materials.
•Never use pure oxygen to ventilate.
•Never store or place compressed tanks in a
confined space.
Confined Space Hazards - Toxic
Atmospheres
•Product stored in a confined space:
–
–
Materials absorbed into walls of confined space
Decomposition of materials in the confined space
•Work performed in a confined space:
–
–
–
–
Gases released when cleaning
Welding, cutting, brazing, soldering
Painting, scraping, sanding, degreasing
Sealing, bonding, melting
Confined Space Hazards – Hydrogen
Sulfide
• Decomposition of materials. Human waste.
• Rotten egg odor at low concentrations.
• Odor smell unreliable-sense of smell diminishes with time.
PPM
Effect
Time
50 ppm
20 ppm
50 - 100
200 - 300
500 -700
>1000
Permissible Exposure Level
Short-Term Exposure Level
Mild Irritation - eyes, throat
Significant Irritation
Unconsciousness, Death
Unconsciousness, Death
8 Hours
10-minute peak
1 Hour
1 Hour
1/2 - 1 Hour
Minutes
Confined Space Hazards - Carbon
Monoxide
PPM



Odorless, Colorless Gas.
Combustion By-Product.
Quickly collapse at high
concentrations.
50
200
600
Effect
PEL
Slight headache,
discomfort
Headache,
discomfort
Confusion,
nausea, headache
Tendency to stagger
10002000
10002000
1000Slight heart
2000
palpitation
2000-2500 Unconsciousness
Time
8 Hours
3 Hours
1 Hour
2 Hours
1.5 Hours
30 Min.
30 Min.
Confined Space Hazard - Temperature
Extremes
•Extremely hot or cold temperatures.
•Steam cleaning of confined spaces.
•Humidity factors.
•Extremely cold liquids.
•Work processes inside the confined space
can increase temperature extremes.
Confined Space Hazards - Flammable
Atmospheres
• 3 Critical Factors:
Oxygen content in the air
– Presence of a flammable gas, or vapor
– Presence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less)
• Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosion
• Typical Ignition Sources:
– Sparking or electric tool
– Welding / cutting operations
– Smoking
–
Confined Space Hazard - Engulfment
•Engulfment is the entrapment of a person by the
contents of a space. The contents surround the
entrant(s) and holds them. The substance can be a
liquid or flowable solid substance.
•Loose, granular materials stored in bins and hoppers grain, sand, coal, etc.
•Flooding of confined space
•Water or sewage flow
Confined Space Hazards - Other Hazards
•Noise
Amplified due to acoustics within the space
 Damaged hearing, affect communication

•Slick / Wet Surfaces
Slips and falls
 Increased chance of electric shock

•Falling Objects

Topside openings expose workers inside confined space
to falling objects
RIT Confined Space Permits


When RIT employees are required to enter permitrequired confined spaces, specific precautions must
be taken to ensure that the entry is performed in a
safe way.
Permits ensure all necessary precautions are
undertaken.
–
–
Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
Reclassification of a Permit-Required Confined Space Hazard Elimination Certificate
Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
An Entry Supervisor will be designated for each
permit-required confined space entry.
 The Entry Supervisor will fill out the Entry Permit
and post it at the entry to the confined space.
•The Permit verifies pre-entry precautions have
been taken and the space is safe to enter.
•The Permit also specifies apparent hazards and
corrective actions taken prior to entry.

Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit

The Entry Supervisor may also serve as the attendant or as
an authorized entrant for an entry operation, as long as they
are properly trained and equipped for each role.

The duties of Entry Supervisor may also be passed from
one individual to another during the course of an entry
operation, as long as the terms and requirements of the
Entry Permit continue to be met. This transfer of duties
should be noted on the entry permit for each transfer.
Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit

The exception to this is when the confined space contains an
immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) atmosphere. One
employee or, when needed, more than one employee must be located
outside the IDLH atmosphere per the OSHA Respirator Protection
Standard (29 CFR 1910.134 (g) (3) ).
Definition
Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means an atmosphere
that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse
health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a
dangerous atmosphere.

One member of the team must be First Aid & CPR trained (outside the
confined space).
Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
(Cont.)
The Entry Permit will include:
• Purpose of entry and known
hazards
• Duration of entry permit
time
• Authorized entrants,
attendants, supervisors
• Air testing results - signature
of tester
• Protective measures to be
taken
• Name and phone numbers
of rescue and emergency
services
• Communication
procedures
• Special equipment and
procedures
– Personal protective
equipment
– Alarm procedures
– Rescue equipment
– Respirators
Permit Required
Confined Space
Entry Permit
Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
(cont.)



The space will be isolated and ventilated.
Atmospheric testing and monitoring will be
performed to ensure a non-hazardous atmosphere
in the space.
Requires termination of permit when task is
completed or when new conditions exist or
personnel change in space
Isolation
•Locking and tagging out electrical sources.
•Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic
lines.
•Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts.
•Securing mechanical parts.
•Blanking sewer and water flow.
•Locking and tagging out shutoff valves.
Ventilation
•First option to correct problems.
•Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct
in the confined space.
•Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only.
•Continuous ventilation whenever possible.
•Retest the confined space before entry.
Testing and Monitoring



•
•
•
Must be conducted prior to any entry to
verify the presence of safe work
atmosphere.
Overseen by Entry Supervisor
Must test for (in order)
– Oxygen
– Flammability
– Toxicity
Carbon Monoxide is the same weight as
air.
Hydrogen Sulfide is heavier than air.
Methane is lighter than air.
Testing and Monitoring (cont.)

Never trust your senses to
determine if the air in a
confined space is SAFE!

You cannot see or smell many
toxic gases and vapors, nor can
you determine the level of
oxygen present.
Personal Protective Equipment

Each Confined Space Entry Permit will specify the
PPE required for the job
Rescue Services
Non-Entry Rescue
 Non-entry emergency rescue services
may be provided by crewmembers
designated as emergency personnel on
the permit.

Non-entry mechanical means for
rescue (winch/tripod) must be in use.

Each entrant shall use a chest/full body
harness with a retrieval line attached to
the winch/tripod.
Rescue Services (cont.)
Entry Rescue
If more than one entrant is needed, more than one
mechanical means for rescue must be employed (i.e., one
entrant attached to one tripod).
Such personnel shall be trained in First Aid and CPR. If this
is not the case, then outside rescue services must be called.
 At no time is an RIT employee or contractor approved to
bodily enter a space to rescue an entrant.
Rescue Services (cont.)



All entry rescues must be performed by emergency service
personnel (Henrietta Fire Department).
Calls placed for emergency services will be directed
through the RIT Campus Safety Department at Extension
5-3333.
The person calling in the emergency will remain on the
telephone with the RIT Campus Safety Department
Dispatcher until the Dispatcher informs him/her that they
have all the information they need.
What ifs - In case of illness or injury

When communication is difficult due to noise or
inability to use cell phones or radios, another
communication method needs to be recognized
and in place.

O.A.T.H. (Ok, Advance, Take up, Help)
– A series of tugs on the tag line enables this
method
OATH Signals (Inside and Outside)

Ok
Advance
Take up

Help


1 Tug
2 Tugs ( more rope needed)
3 Tugs ( turn around to come
out)
4 Tugs (GET OUT or I need
help immediately)
Confined Space Training
Training – The following RIT employees must take this
training and hands on use of confined space entry equipment
training, prior to their initial confined space work assignment:
•
All workers who must enter confined spaces must undergo
training.
•
All attendants and rescue team members.
• Other employees as necessary for awareness.
Confined Space Training (cont.)
Retraining – RIT employees must be retrained when:

Job duties change.
 Change in the confined space program (new or revised
procedures).

New hazards are present.

Job performance indicates deficiencies.
Any employees who performs or has the potential to perform
non-entry rescues should undergo hands-on non-entry
rescue training.
Examples of common
Confined spaces
Examples of common
Confined spaces
Examples of uncommon Confined spaces
FMS Confined Space Process
1.
2.
3.
Equipment that requires Confined Space procedures are
designated in Archibus
The SOPs are referenced in the Preventive Maintenance
work order. There will be a hard copy with each
Foreman and a web site reference.
If there is a repair or emergency the staff will have to
access the C. Space inventory and SOPs from the EH&S
web site.
4.
All paperwork will be signed and the hard copies will be
collected by your Foreman.
What you will see accessing the CS table
Archibus Equip ID
Space
Permit
Procedure
Number
Required
Number
--------------
------------
----------------
HC-001-CT-01
309
Y
15
HC-001-CT-01
310
Y
15
HC-001-CT-01
311
Y
15
HC-001-AHU-06
312
Y
3
HC-001-AHU-06
313
Y
3
HC-001-AHU-06
314
Y
8
---------------------------
SOP 1
SOP 1=phone call only.
Non-Permit Required Confined Spaces
1) An RIT employee may enter a Non-Permit Required Confined Space
using the following procedure:
1) Before entry into Non-Permit Required Space, employee calls FMS
Call Center (7am-5pm M-Fr) or FMS Group Leader (after hours) and
advises of the entry location and expected time of exit from space.
2) Employee enters space with communication device (cell phone or
two-way radio).
3) Upon exit of space, employee calls FMS Call Center or FMS Group
Leader and confirms employee has exited space.
How to Identify “ Non-Permit-Required”
Confined Spaces
How to Identify “Permit-Required” Confined
Spaces
RIT has identified confined spaces across campus. Each confined space
that has been classified as a “Permit-required” confined space is posted
with the following sign:
Permit-Required
Confined Space
DO NOT ENTER
For Entry Contact Environmental Health & Safety at 475-2040
In Case of an Emergency Contact Public Safety at 475-3333 V/TTY
SOP 2-39
Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be
Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via Procedure
Individual can mitigate.
This is VERY similar to your current activities.
Re-Classification of a “Permit-Required” Confined
Space (Cont.)





Call
Fill in Mech/Physical Hazard
Elimination Certificate
Proceed with work
Hand over signed tag to
Foreman after completion of
work
Foreman to EH&S within 2
business days
SOP SAMPLE FOR RECLASSIFICATION
3) Air Handlers - Fan Section (Supply or Return)
1. Power down Supply Fan and Return Fan (if there is a
Return Fan) at VSD.
2. Lock out and Tag out Power Disconnect Switches for
Supply and Return Fans.
3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader (after regular
business hours) of entry and approximate exit time.
4. Notify FMS CC or Group Leader of exit.
SOP 40-69
Permit Required Confined Spaces that can be
Reclassified as Non-Permit Spaces via Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
TEST AIR
Fill out Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard
Elimination Certificate
If numbers fall within range- proceed
If not –STOP
Call Foreman
SOP SAMPLE WITH RECERTIFICATION
AND AIR TESTING
41) Air Intake/Exhaust Pits
1. Test atmosphere with 4 gas meter.
2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader
of entry and approximate exit time.
3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of exit.
42) Blg 76 Crawl Space
1. Test atmosphere with 4 gas meter.
2. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of entry and approximate
exit time.
3. Notify FMS CC or FMS Group Leader of exit.
Call Progression for
Entering Confined
Spaces with
Procedures 1-69
SOP’s 70-99
 Do
not enter without correct team
 Fill out Confined Space Permit
 Available through EH&S, will not be
on EH&S website. Call EH&S to
obtain form.
SOP SAMPLE WITH CONFINED SPACE
PERMIT REQUIRED
72) HTHW City Water Make Up Tank (Blg 01 & 50A) –
Vertical Tank – Horizontal Rescue
1. Close City Water valve to Make Up Tank.
2. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve.
3. Close valve between Make Up Tank and Make Up
Pumps(s).
4. Lock out and Tag out City Water valve.
5. Vent and drain tank.
6. Remove tank manhole cover.
SUMMARY





All equipment will be labeled either “CAUTION” OR
CONFINED SPACE
SOP 1- call only
SOP 2-39- fill out Mechanical/Physical Hazard
Elimination Certificate and continue work
SOP 40-69-test air quality, if pass-continue work and fill out
Atmospheric and Mechanical/Physical Hazard
Elimination Certificate
SOP 70-99-fill out Confined Space Permit -cannot
enter ALONE- a team is required that includes EH&S and
someone who is properly certified (First Aid, CPR)
SCHEDULE
Hands on training- May 12th week
All equipment labeled by May 15, 2008
Start process May 15, 2008
Foreman will have lists of all equipment and SOPs by
May 15, 2008
EH&S website available by May 15, 2008

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