### Matter and Properties

```Matter and Properties
Chapter 11
Elements
• __________
- anything that takes up space
Matter
and has mass.
elements
• __________
- basic building blocks of matter
• Elements combine to form other kinds of
Matter
______
• Elements can not be broken down into smaller
pieces by either _________
or ________
chemical
physical
processes.
Properties of Matter
physical
• Each element has its own set of ________
and
__________
properties.
chemical
elements
• Properties are used to identify _________
Chemical properties - materials change into other
• _____________
materials.
Physical properties
• ______________
- can be measured without
changing the material.
Physical Properties
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
________
color
_______
odor
_______
mass
______
volume
_______
texture
_______
hardness
Physical properties can be observed, described
and measured using:
Rulers
– ______
microscopes
– ___________
Scales and balances
-_________________
thermometers
-____________
Metals
• More than 75% of the Earths elements are
_______
metals
properties of :
• Metals have Physical
____________
Luster (shine)
– ___________
– ___________
bendable
Conduct heat energy
– _________________
Conduct electricity
– _________________
Weight and Mass
• ______
weight - measure of the pull on gravity on an
object
gravity
• Weight changes when the pull of _______
changes.
mass - the amount of matter in an object
• _____
mass
weight
• The amount of ______
affects the ________
of an object
mass
weight
• ______and
_______
are NOT the same
Volume
milligrams or
• Mass is measured in _______,
________,
grams
________
kilograms
volume
• _______
- the amount of space that an objects
takes up
• Volume is measured in _________
Cubic units
• The formula for finding the volume of a box is:
– ____________________________________
Volume(V) = Length (L) x Width (W) x Height (H)
Density
• ______
density - a measure of the amount of matter
in a given volume.
(D) is Mass
(M)
• The formula for finding Density
_______
______
Volume (V) or D=M/V.
divided by ________
• The unit of measurement for density is
________________
Cubic centimeters (cm³)
Physical property of a substance.
• Density is a _______
same
• Density is the ______
no matter how much of
the substance is measured.
Buoyancy
buoyant
floats
• An object is __________
if it __________.
• _____________
depends on ___________
buoyancy
density
• If the objects ______
the liquid’s
density is _________
Less than
density
float
__________,
the object will _______.
• Ocean water has dissolved salt in it, therefore
More dense
ocean water is ___________
than fresh water.
• Lesson Checkpoint page 347 (1 and 2)
Atoms
atom
• ______
- the smallest particle of an element
that still has the properties of the element.
• Atoms are too small to be seen even with a
__________.
microscope
• The properties of an element determine how
an element can _______with
other elements.
combine
• _________
- the center of an atom
nucleus
Parts of an atom
•
•
•
•
The nucleus has both the _______
neutrons and ______
protons
________
- has no electrical charge
neutron
________
- has a positive charge
proton
________
electrons - have a negative charge and move
around the ________
and _________
neutrons
protons
join
leave
• Electrons may ____or
______
electrons or be
________
between ______
shared
atoms
• Elements are organized in the _____________
Periodic Table
Periodic Table
row
• Elements are arranged in each _____
according to the number of _______
protons
larger
right
• ______atoms
are on the ________
side of
each row.
• The _________
of the table are arranged so
columns
that the elements of each column have similar
Chemical properties
_______________
• ___________
- last column on the right
Noble Gases
Molecules
• Every element has a symbol of one, two, or
letters
three ______
Molecule
• ___________
- the smallest particle of a
substance that has the properties of that
substance.
• In some molecules , atoms _____
share electrons –
these atoms are _________
together.
bonded
• ____
is a mixture of several different
air
molecules of gases – Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carb
Compounds
• __________
- type of matter made up of
compounds
combination of elements
_________
molecule
compound
• Every ________
of a _________
has the same
elements
combination of _________
molecule has the same three
• Every water ________
____
atoms
properties
• ___________of
compounds are different than
the properties of the ________
that make
elements
them up
Phases of Matter
• Phases of matter include: ________,
solid
gas
plasma
________,
____,
and _________
liquid
• The phase of matter is due to the _______
motion
and __________
arrangement of its particles.
Physical property
• State of matter = _____________
Solids / Liquids
• Solids have a definite __________
and
shape
___________
volume
• The particles of a solid ________
in place.
vibrate
• Particles of solids are _______________
Very close together
• __________
do not have their own ______
- they
liquids
shape
take on the shape of their container
• Particles in liquids can ______
and _______
past
move
flow
each other
• Liquids have a definite __________
volume
Freezing and Melting
• ____________
and ___________
are physical
Freezing point
Melting point
properties
• A material _________
at the same
Freezes
melts
temperature that it ______
different
• Freezing point is _________
for different
materials.
• __________
Freezing point does not change for any
particular material unless something is added
to it.
Properties of Freezing and Melting
size
• Materials change _____
when they change
____________
temperatures
• The ______a
material gets, the _______
its
hotter
faster
particles move.
• When materials are heated they ________
expand
particles move further apart.
• When materials are cooled, they ________
contract
and have less space between the particles
Gases
Far apart
• Particles of gases are __________
• Gases in a container will spread out to ___
fill the
container
shape
• Gases do not have a definite _______
or
_______
volume
Boiling point
• ____________
- temperature at which a liquid
becomes a gas - ____________
Physical property
• Boiling point for a substance does not change
Plasma
• No definite shape or volume
• Some properties of gases
• Particles that make up plasma have electrical
Conducts electricity
charges – plasma ______________
• Plasmas are found in:
Lightning
– _________
fire
– _____
Fluorescent lights
– ______________
Condensation
condensation - gas changes to a liquid
• __________
• Condensation occurs when gases are _______
cooled
• Particles ___________
and begin to _______
Slow down
attract
droplets
each other to form ___________
Mixtures and Solutions
mixture
• ________
- materials that are placed together
but are not bonded to form a ________
compound
• Materials in a mixture keep their own
_________
properties
• Materials in mixtures can be ________
separated
because they have different properties.
solution
• ________
- a mixture in which substances are
spread out evenly and will not settle
Solute / Solvent
solute
• _______
- the substance in a solution that
__________
dissolves
• ________
- the substance in which the solute
solvent
is being dissolved.
• Water = _______________
Universal Solvent
solute
• When particles of a ________
dissolve,
________
solvent
Solubility
solution
• Two liquids can make a ________
• A _____
can dissolve in a liquid – example
gas
dissolved oxygen in the river and creek water
that we tested!!!
• _________
- a property of a substance that
solubility
indicates how much of a substance can be
solvent
dissolved by a ________
at a certain
____________.
temperature
Saturated / Concentrated / Dilute
saturated
• _________
- a solution that contains all the
solute that can be dissolved without changing
temperature
the __________
• concentration
_________ - solution has so much solute that
saturated
it is relatively close to being _________
• _________
- solution is far from being
dilute
________
saturated
```