Product Life Cycle

Report
New Product Development
and
Product Life-Cycle Strategies
www.kafebisnis2010.wordpress.com
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Idea Generation and Screening
Concept Development and Testing
Marketing Strategy
Business Analysis
Product Development
Test Marketing
Commercialization
New Product Development Process
Step 1. Idea Generation
Systematic Search for New Product
Ideas
Internal sources
Customers
Competitors
Distributors
Suppliers
New Product Development Process
Step 2. Idea Screening
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Process to spot good ideas and drop poor ones
Criteria
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Market Size
Product Price
Development Time & Costs
Manufacturing Costs
Rate of Return
New Product Development Process
Step 3. Concept Development & Testing
1. Develop Product Ideas into
Alternative
Product Concepts
2. Concept Testing - Test the
Product Concepts with Groups
of Target Customers
3. Choose the Best One
New Product Development Process
Step 4. Marketing Strategy Development
Marketing Strategy Statement Formulation
Part One - Overall:
Target Market
Planned Product Positioning
Sales & Profit Goals
Market Share
Part Two - Short-Term:
Product’s Planned Price
Distribution
Marketing Budget
Part Three - Long-Term:
Sales & Profit Goals
Marketing Mix Strategy
New Product Development Process
Step 5. Business Analysis
Step 6. Product Development
Business Analysis
Review of Product Sales, Costs,
and Profits Projections to See if
They Meet Company Objectives
If No, Eliminate
Product Concept
If Yes, Move to
Product Development
New Product Development Process
Step 7. Test Marketing
Standard
Test Market
Controlled
Test Market
Full marketing campaign
in a small number of
representative cities.
A few stores that have
agreed to carry new
products for a fee.
Simulated
Test Market
Test in a simulated
shopping environment
to a sample of
consumers.
Product Life Cycle
Product Life Cycle – shows the stages that products go through
from development to withdrawal from the market
Model BCG
20%
18%
TANDA
TANYA
BINTANG
16%
14%
12%
10%
ANJING
SAPI
PERAH
8%
6%
4%
2%
0%
4x
2x 1,5x 1x
0,5x 0,4x 0,3x
0,2x
0,1x
Product Life Cycle (PLC)
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Each product may have a different life cycle
PLC determines revenue earned
Contributes to strategic marketing planning
May help the firm to identify when
a product needs support, redesign, withdrawal, etc.
• May help in new product development planning
• May help in forecasting and managing cash flow
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Overestimation of Market Size
Product Design Problems
Product Incorrectly Positioned, Priced or Advertised
Costs of Product Development
Competitive Actions
To create successful new products, the company must:
 understand it’s customers, markets and competitors
 develop products that deliver superior value to
customers.
Introduction Stage of the PLC
Sales
Low sales
Costs
High cost per customer
Profits
Negative
Marketing Objectives
Create product awareness
and trial
Product
Offer a basic product
Price
Use cost-plus
Distribution
Build selective distribution
Advertising
Build product awareness among early
adopters and dealers
Growth Stage of the PLC
Sales
Rapidly rising sales
Costs
Average cost per customer
Profits
Rising profits
Marketing Objectives
Maximize market share
Product
Offer product extensions, service,
warranty
Price
Price to penetrate market
Distribution
Build intensive distribution
Advertising
Build awareness and interest in the
mass market
Maturity Stage of the PLC
Sales
Peak sales
Costs
Low cost per customer
Profits
High profits
Marketing Objectives
Maximize profit while defending
market share
Product
Diversify brand and models
Price
Price to match or best competitors
Distribution
Build more intensive distribution
Advertising
Stress brand differences and benefits
Decline Stage of the PLC
Sales
Declining sales
Costs
Low cost per customer
Profits
Declining profits
Marketing Objectives
Reduce expenditure and milk the brand
Product
Phase out weak items
Price
Cut price
Distribution
Go selective: phase out unprofitable
outlets
Advertising
Reduce to level needed to retain
hard-core loyal customers
Tujuan Pemasaran
Perkenalan
Pertumbu- Kedewahan
saan
Menciptakan
kesadaran
dan
keinginan
mencoba
produk
Memaksimal
kan pangsa
pasar
Penurunan
Memaksimal Mengurangi
kan laba,
pengeluaran
memperta
hankan
pangsa pasar
Strategi
Perkenalan
Pertumbuhan
Kedewasaan
Penurunan
Produk
Tawaran
produk dasar
Tawaran
perluasan
produk,
pelayanan,
jaminan
Diversifikasi
merk dan
model
Lepas jenis
produk yang
lemah
Harga
Menyesuaika
n biaya-plus
Harga untuk
menembus
pasar
Harga sama
atau lebih
baik dari
pesaing
Turunkan
harga
Distribusi
Buat distribusi Buat distribusi Buat lebih
selektif
intensif
banyak
distribusi
intensif
Selektif lepas
segmen yang
tidak
menguntungk
an
Strategi (lanjutan)
Perkenalan
Pertumbuhan
Kedewasaan
Penurunan
Pengiklanan
Bangun
kesadarn
produk
diantara
pemakai awal
dan penyalur
Bangun
kesadaran
minat di pasar
massal
Tekankan
perbedaan
dan manfaat
merk
Kurangi
sampai
tingkat yang
diperlukan
untuk
mempertahan
kan pemakai
setia
Promosi
penjualan
Gunakan
banyak
promosi
penjualan
untuk menarik
pencoba
Kurangi untuk
mengambil
keuntungan
dari besarnya
permintaan
konsumen
Tingkatkan
untuk
mendorong
peralihan
merk
Kurangi
sampai
tingkat
minimal
Siklus hidup produk
(product life cycle – PLC)
adalah perjalanan penjualan dari suatu produk
dalam masa hidupnya. Siklus hidup produk
merupakan suatu konsep penting yang
memberikan pemahaman tentang dinamika
kompetitif suatu produk.
Kesimpulan
• Konsep siklus hidup produk sangat baik
digunakan untuk menginterpretasikan
dinamika produk dan pasar.
• Kelemahan dari konsep ini, yaitu kurang dapat
digunakan sebagai alat prediksi karena sejarah
penjualan menunjukkan pola yang beragam,
dan tahap-tahapnya itu berbeda durasinya.
• Selain itu, perusahaan juga menemui kesulitan
untuk mengetahui di tahap apa suatu produk
sedang berada.

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