Collectivism vs. Individualism

Report
THE SELF
Humanistic Perspective
The Real Self:
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According to Rogers, our real
self is based on our actual
experiences and represents
how we actually see
ourselves.
Why do I sometimes feel that
I don’t know myself?
Why do I sometimes say or
do things that aren’t really
me?
Carl Rogers developed a
clever answer to these
relatively common and
perplexing questions.
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Label a blank sheet of paper
“Perceived Self”
Spend about 5 minutes
describing how you see
yourself.
Ideal Self
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The ideal self,
according to Rogers, is
based on our hopes
and wishes and reflects
how we would like to
see ourselves.
Label a piece of paper
“Ideal Self” and spend
about 5 minutes
describing who you
would LIKE TO BE.
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Did anyone write the
same thing on both
papers?
The Humanistic
perspective argues
that a fully selfactualized person finds
the “Ideal Self”
completely congruent
with the “Perceived
Self”
Contradiction between the ideal and real self
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A glaring
contradiction between
the “real” and “ideal”
self can result in
personality problems.
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What might account
for the glaring
differences between
the real & ideal self?
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Maturity
Still achieving goals
Still in the process of
finding our true
identity
How popular is Humanism?
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Perhaps the main reason
humanistic theories, such as
those of Maslow & Rogers,
continue to be popular is that
they view people as
basically good and believe
that people can develop
their true potentials.
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Criticisms?
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Provide little or no scientific
proof that an innate
tendency to self actualize
exists.
Description of human
behavior rather than an
explanation?
Humanistic theories tend to
ignore research showing that
20-60% of the development
of intellectual, emotional,
social, and personality traits
comes from genetic factors.
Assessing the Self
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What do we know from
research?
Visualization
 Benefits of Self-Esteem
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Fewer sleepless nights
Succumb less easily to pressures
Less likely to use drugs
Persist more on difficult tasks
Just plain happier
1.
2.
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Culture
3.
3 ways to maintain self-esteem
Value things at which they excel
Attribute problems to prejudice
Do what everyone else does
(compare only to own group)
Activity!
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The Name-Letter Effect
Activity!
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Self-Ratings
The Self-Serving Bias
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A readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
People accept responsibility
for good deeds more often
than for bad
People see themselves as better
than average
Self-Presentation Theory
Individualism vs. Collectivism
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Individualism: Giving priority to one’s own goals
over group goals and defining one’s personal
attributes rather than group identifications
(Independence)
Collectivism: Giving priority to the goals of one’s
group and defining one’s identity accordingly
(Interdependence)
Value Contrasts Between Individualism
and Collectivism
Concept
Individualism
Collectivism
Self
Independent
Interdependent
Life Task
Discover and express one’s
uniqueness
Maintain connections
What matters
Me- personal achievement
We- group goals and
solidarity
Coping Method
Change reality
Accommodate to reality
Relationships
Many, often temporary and
casual
Few, close and enduring
Attributing Behavior
Behavior reflects one’s
personality and attitudes
Behavior reflects social
norms and roles
Morality
Defined by individuals (self- Defined by social networks
based)
(duty- based)
Video
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Cultural Psychology

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