Form ideas to industry 1974-2014

Report
FROM MATERIALS PHYSICS TO NANOSCALE DEVICES –
50 YEARS OF FINNISH RESEARCH IN SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY
Development of two important Finnish
innovations: Humicap and ALD
Tuomo Suntola
Capacitive humidity sensor - Humicap
Request to VTT Semiconductor laboratory by Vaisala Oy in 1971:
“Development of a micro-sensor alternative for humidity measuring at
weather stations and in radiosondes.”
Pre-study by Tapio Wiik:
Capacitive humidity sensors had been demonstrated with porous Al2O3 thin films
and with polymer foil; Nylon foil humidity sensor was patented by Honeywell.
The operational principle: Absorption of water vapor in a dielectric material result
in an increase of the dielectric constant and the capacitance measured.
Tuomo Suntola started the development with Anja Savolainen as laboratorian in
December 1971.
The polymer line was selected: Instead of using a self supporting foil, the
polymer material was dissolved in a solvent and a polymer film was formed on a
glass substrate using a spinner (like used for photoresist in the lab) or by drawing
up the substrate uniformly from the polymer solution.
Jorma Antson joined the team in late summer 1972, the development was
completed by the end of 1973.
Capacitance
Capacitance
Capacitive humidity sensor - Humicap
Relative humidity (%)
0
50
+ Nylon material was advantageous for
having a low hysteresis.
- The temperature and frequency
dependence of the capacitance was
substantial.
100
Relative humidity (%)
0
50
100
A specific polymer material with linear
response and practically zero temperature
dependence was found.
With all polymers tested, the hysteresis
was substantially lower in thin film
structures than it was in self-supported foil
structures.
Capacitive humidity sensor - Humicap
The thin film structure comprised
- Very fast response
- Large temperature range
- Low temperature dependence
- Suitable for mass production
A prototype sensor made in 1973.
The sensor was fully functional
when photographed in 2014.
Capacitive humidity sensor - Humicap
As the world’s first thin-film capacitive humidity sensor,
the HUMICAP® was a radical innovation that completely
changed the way humidity is measured. The new groundhttp://www.vaisala.com/en/corporate/cases/Pages/humicapcelebratesits40years.aspx
breaking technology had no moving parts, and it was
amazingly small due to the advanced use of thin-film
technology.
Today, Vaisala is the market leader in relative humidity
measurements, and thin-film capacitive humidity sensors
have developed from one company’s innovation into a
global industry standard.
From humidity sensor to EL-panels and ALD
Instrumentarium Oy
Search for new challenges
Late 1973
”Humicap” humidity
sensor to Vaisala Oy, 1973
1.1.1974
Research
unit
Request for proposals for
new products
Vaisala:
Investment in IC-technology
 Pressure sensors
 Acceleration sensors
VTI technologies 1991
Murata Electronics 2012
MEMS research activity, VTT
Okmetic
The proposal
Request for proposals for
new products
Lecture given on future
displays at INSKO
Market research:
- medical instrumentation,
key components
I am still confused
– but at a higher level
… let’s go ahead
Let’s develop
an electroluminescent
flat panel display
Thin film technology,
sensors, output devices
?
?
?
…nobody has done
it yet
EL
?
?
?
?
?
The problem and the solution
State of the art:
- High performance demonstrated
- Major problems with stability
due to the high operational
voltage
Well controlled electronic
properties require well
ordered material
Well order material
requires well ordered
processing conditions
Novel thin film processing
technique is needed
How about sequential
buildup of compounds?
May - June 1974
The 1st ALE process for ZnS, September 1974
Hexagonal ZnS:
monolayer 3.13 Å
n=2.36
Idea of sequential
buildup of compounds,
June 1974
0.6
mm
1/3 x
monolayer
0.4
0.2
Construction of a test
equipment
0
0
Optical
thickness
monitoring
10
20
minutes
320 C
4x10-5 torr
2x10-2 torr
360 C
10-4 torr
S
Zn
3x10-3 torr
100 C
2 c/s
12.05.2014
12th Baltic ALD, Helsinki 2014
9
Early ALD reactors
1970
1980
1990
2000
EL demos
Need, ideas, solution, demonstration, basic patents
2010
2020
Meeting
Early ALD
the EL
reactors
target
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Picopack
Elcoteq
Commercial production of EL panels, Lohja  Planar  Beneq
Pilot production of EL panels
EL demos
Need, ideas, solution, demonstration, basic patents
40 years of ALD reactors
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Microchemistry Ltd
commercial reactors
Research for better understanding of ALD chemistry
Commercial production of EL panels, Lohja  Planar  Beneq
Product prototypes, reactors for EL production
Need, ideas, solution, demonstration, basic patents
40 years of ALD reactors
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
2005 Beneq Oy
2004 Picosun Oy
Microchemistry Ltd
commercial reactors
1999 ASM Microchemistry,
commercial reactors & processes
Research for better understanding of ALD chemistry
Commercial production of EL panels, Lohja  Planar  Beneq
Product prototypes, reactors for EL production
Need, ideas, solution, demonstration, basic patents
From ideas to global industry
1970
1980
1990
2000
ALE-4
Linz 1996
ACSI
1984
Helsinki University of conferences
Technology
University of Joensuu
1984
Conference on
Solid State Devices
and Materials
Kobe, Japan
16th
Microchemistry Ltd,
commercial reactors
2010
2020
Explosive increase in
ALD activity
- research & industrial
2005 Beneq Oy
2004 Picosun Oy
1999 ASM Microchemistry,
of Excellence
commercial reactors &Centre
processes
Research for better understanding of ALD chemistry
The European
SEMI
Award 2004
was
handed
to Tuomo
Commercial
production
of EL
panels,
Lohja
 Planar  Beneq
Suntola at the Munich Electronics Show 2004 by Stanley Myers,
Product
prototypes,
reactors
EL production
the
President
& CEO of
SEMIfor
(USA)
“Honoring the Pioneer in
Need, ideas,
solution,
demonstration,
basic
patents
Atomic
Layer Deposition
Techniques
... that
paved the way for the
development of nanoscale semiconductor devices".
A Short History of Atomic Layer Deposition:
Tuomo Suntola’s Atomic Layer Epitaxy
By Dr. Riikka L. Puurunen,
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland
riikka.puurunen @vtt.fi
FROM MATERIALS PHYSICS TO NANOSCALE DEVICES –
50 YEARS OF FINNISH RESEARCH IN SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY
Thank you for your attention!

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