SUSY DM and LHC - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare

Report
Workshop on PAMELA PHYSICS,
Rome, 11 –12 May, 2009
NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE SM:
ASTROPARTICLE – LHC
SYNERGY
Antonio Masiero
Univ. of Padova
INFN, Padova
WHY TO GO BEYOND THE SM
“OBSERVATIONAL” REASONS
THEORETICAL REASONS
•HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
Z
bb
NO (but AFB……)
•INTRINSIC INCONSISTENCY OF
SM AS QFT
•FCNC, CP
NO (but b sqq penguin …)
NO (spont. broken gauge theory
•HIGH PRECISION LOW-EN.
NO (but (g-2) …)
NO
•NO ANSWER TO QUESTIONS
THAT “WE” CONSIDER
“FUNDAMENTAL” QUESTIONS TO
BE ANSWERED BY
“FUNDAMENTAL” THEORY
NO
•NEUTRINO PHYSICS
YE m 0,  0
YES


•COSMO - PARTICLE PHYSICS
YE (DM, ∆B cosm, INFLAT., DE)
YES
without anomalies)
YES (hierarchy, unification, flavor)
Strong CP violation?
MICRO
MACRO
PARTICLE PHYSICS
GWS STANDARD MODEL
COSMOLOGY
HOT BIG BANG
STANDARD MODEL
HAPPY MARRIAGE
Ex: NUCLEOSYNTHESIS
BUT ALSO
POINTS OF
FRICTION
- COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
- INFLATION
- DARK MATTER + DARK ENERGY
“OBSERVATIONAL” EVIDENCE FOR NEW PHYSICS BEYOND
THE (PARTICLE PHYSICS) STANDARD MODEL
INFLATION

SEVERE
COSMOGICAL
PROBLEMS



CAUSALITY
(isotropy of CMBR)
FLATNESS
( close to 1 today)
AGE OF THE UNIV.
PRIMORDIAL MONOPOLES
COMMON SOLUTION FOR THESE PROBLEMS
VERY FAST (EXPONENTIAL) EXPANSION IN THE UNIV.

V()
VACUUM
ENERGY
 dominated by
vacuum en.
TRUE
VACUUM
NO WAY TO GET AN “INFLATIONARY SCALAR
POTENTIAL” IN THE SM
NO ROOM IN THE PARTICLE
PHYSICS STANDARD MODEL FOR
INFLATION
V=2 2 + 4
no inflation
Need to extend the SM scalar potential
Ex: GUT’s, SUSY GUT’s,…
ENERGY SCALE OF “INFLATIONARY PHYSICS”:
LIKELY TO BE Mw
»
DIFFICULT BUT NOT IMPOSSIBLE TO OBTAIN
ELECTROWEAK INFLATION IN SM EXTENSIONS
THE COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY PUZZLE:
-why only baryons
-why Nbaryons/Nphoton ~ 10-10
•
•
•
•
•
NO EVIDENCE OF ANTIMATTER WITHIN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
ANTIPROTONS IN COSMIC RAYS: IN AGREEMENT WITH PRODUCTION AS
SECONDARIES IN COLLISIONS
IF IN CLUSTER OF GALAXIES WE HAD AN ADMIXTURE OF GALAXIES MADE
OF MATTER AND ANTIMATTER
THE PHOTON FLUX PRODUCED
BY MATTER-ANTIMATTER ANNIHILATION IN THE CLUSTER WOULD EXCEED
THE OBSERVED GAMMA FLUX
IF Nba . = Nantibar AND NO SEPARATION WELL BEFORE THEY DECOUPLE .
WE WOULD BE LEFT WITH Nbar./Nphoton << 10-10
IF BARYONS-ANTIBARYONS ARE SEPARATED EARLIER
DOMAINS OF BARYONS AND ANTIBARYONS ARE TOO SMALL TODAY TO
EXPLAIN SEPARATIONS LARGER THAN THE SUPERCLUSTER SIZE
ONLY MATTER IS PRESENT
HOW TO DYNAMICALLY PRODUCE A BARYON-ANTIBARYON
ASYMMETRY STARTING FROM A SYMMETRIC SITUATION
COSMIC MATTER-ANTIMATTER
ASYMMETRY “EXPLAINED” BY
INITIAL CONDITIONS
Murayama
SM FAILS TO GIVE RISE TO A SUITABLE COSMIC
MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
• SM DOES NOT SATISFY AT LEAST TWO OF THE THREE
SACHAROV’S NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR A
DYNAMICAL BARYOGENESIS:
• NOT ENOUGH CP VIOLATION IN THE SM
NEED FOR
NEW SOURCES OF CPV IN ADDITION TO THE PHASE
PRESENT IN THE CKM MIXING MATRIX
• FOR MHIGGS > 80 GeV THE ELW. PHASE TRANSITION OF
THE SM IS A SMOOTH CROSSOVER
NEED NEW PHYSICS BEYOND SM. IN PARTICULAR,
FASCINATING POSSIBILITY: THE ENTIRE MATTER IN
THE UNIVERSE ORIGINATES FROM THE SAME
MECHANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EXTREME
SMALLNESS OF NEUTRINO MASSES
MATTER-ANTIMATTER ASYMMETRY
NEUTRINO
MASSES CONNECTION: BARYOGENESIS THROUGH
LEPTOGENESIS
• Key-ingredient of the SEE-SAW mechanism for neutrino
masses: large Majorana mass for RIGHT-HANDED
neutrino
• In the early Universe the heavy RH neutrino decays with Lepton
Number violatiion; if these decays are accompanied by a new
source of CP violation in the leptonic sector, then
it is possible to create a lepton-antilepton asymmetry
at the moment RH neutrinos decay. Since SM interactions
preserve Baryon and Lepton numbers at all orders in
perturbation theory, but violate them at the quantum level, such
LEPTON ASYMMETRY can be converted by these purely
quantum effects into a BARYON-ANTIBARYON ASYMMETRY
( Fukugita-Yanagida mechanism for leptogenesis )
SUSY SEE-SAW
• UV COMPLETION
OF THE SM TO
STABILIZE THE
ELW. SCALE:
LOW-ENERGY
SUSY
• COMPLETION OF THE SM
FERMIONIC SPECTRUM
TO ALLOW FOR
NEUTRINO MASSES:
NATURALLY SMALL
PHYSICAL NEUTRINO
MASSES WITH RIGHTHANDED NEUTRINO
WITH A LARGE
MAJORANA MASS
SEE-SAW
SUSY SEESAW: Flavor universal SUSY breaking
and yet large lepton flavor violation
Borzumati, A. M. 1986 (after discussions with
W. Marciano and A. Sanda)
L  fl eR Lh1  f  R Lh2  M  R R
m 
2
L
1
ij

~ 2 (3m  A ) f f
8
2
0
2
0
†

M
ij log
MG
Non-diagonality of the slepton mass
matrix in the basis of diagonal lepton
mass matrix depends on the unitary
matrix U which diagonalizes (f+ f)
µ
e+ in SUSYGUT: past and future
CATENA, FACCIA, A.M., VEMPATI
and PRISM/PRIME conversion experiment
LFV from SUSY GUTs
Lorenzo Calibbi
BARYOGENESIS AT THE
ELECTROWEAK SCALE ?
In the MSSM:
-light stop:
-light Higgs
-large SUSY
masses
CARENA, NARDINI, QUIROS, WAGNER
THE UNIVERSE ENERGY BUDGET
DM  NEW PHYSICS BEYOND THE
( PARTICLE PHYSICS ) SM - if Newton is right
at scales>size of the Solar System
• ΩDM = 0.233 ± 0.013 *
• Ωbaryons = 0.0462 ± 0.0015 **
*from CMB ( 5 yrs. of WMAP) + Type I
Supernovae + Baryon Acoustic
Oscillations (BAO)
**CMB + TypeI SN + BAO in agreement with
Nucleosynthesis (BBN)
The BULLET CLUSTER: two colliding clusters of galaxies
Stars, galaxies and putative DM behave differently during collision, allowing for
them to be studied separately. In MOND the lensing is expected to follow the
baryonic matter, i.e. the X-ray gas. However the lensing is strongest in two
separated regions near the visible galaxies
most of the mass in the
cluster pair is in the form of collisionless DM
DM: the most impressive evidence at the
“quantitative” and “qualitative” levels of
New Physics beyond SM
• QUANTITATIVE: Taking into account the latest WMAP
data which in combination with LSS data provide stringent
bounds on DM and B
EVIDENCE
FOR NON-BARYONIC DM AT MORE THAN 10
STANDARD DEVIATIONS!! THE SM DOES NOT
PROVIDE ANY CANDIDATE FOR SUCH NONBARYONIC DM
• QUALITATIVE: it is NOT enough to provide a mass to
neutrinos to obtain a valid DM candidate; LSS formation
requires DM to be COLD
NEW PARTICLES NOT
INCLUDED IN THE SPECTRUM OF THE
FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE SM !
The Energy Scale from the
“Observational” New Physics
neutrino masses
dark matter
baryogenesis
inflation
NO NEED FOR THE
NP SCALE TO BE
CLOSE TO THE
ELW. SCALE
The Energy Scale from the
“Theoretical” New Physics
Stabilization of the electroweak symmetry breaking at
MW calls for an ULTRAVIOLET COMPLETION of the SM already
at the TeV scale
+
CORRECT GRAND UNIFICATION “CALLS” FOR NEW PARTICLES
AT THE ELW. SCALE
(Difficult) Conditions for the axion to
constitute 100% of DM
Hertzberg, Steigmark, Wilczek
Visinelli, Gondolo
THE “WIMP MIRACLE”
Bergstrom
Many possibilities, but WIMPs are singled out by an
exceptional “coincidence”: parameters of the STANDARD
MODELS of PARTICLE PHYSICS and COSMOLOGY
conspire to provide a viable cold DM candidate at the
ELECTROWEAK SCALE
WIMPS (Weakly
# exp(-m/T)

#~#
Interacting Massive
Particles)
# does not change any more
m
Tdecoupl. typically ~ m /20
 ) and “cosmological” quantities (H, T , …
  depends on particle physics (annih.
0
 h2_~
10-3
COSMO – PARTICLE
<(annih.) V  > TeV2
~
2 /
M 2
CONSPIRACY
From T0 MPlanck
h2 in the range 10-2 -10-1 to be cosmologically interesting (for DM)
m ~ 102 - 103 GeV (weak interaction)
h2 ~ 10-2 -10-1 !!!
THERMAL RELICS (WIMP in thermodyn.equilibrium with the
plasma until Tdecoupl)
STABLE ELW. SCALE WIMPs from
PARTICLE PHYSICS
1) ENLARGEMENT
OF THE SM
SUSY
(x, )
EXTRA DIM.
(x, ji)
Anticomm.
Coord.
2) SELECTION
RULE
DISCRETE SYMM.
New bosonic
Coord.
R-PARITY LSP
KK-PARITY LKP
Neutralino spin 1/2
spin1
LITTLE HIGGS.
SM part + new part
to cancel 2
at 1-Loop
T-PARITY LTP
spin0
STABLE NEW
PART.
3) FIND REGION (S)
PARAM. SPACE
WHERE THE “L” NEW
PART. IS NEUTRAL +
ΩL h2 OK
mLSP
mLKP
mLTP
~100 - 200
~600 - 800
~400 - 800
GeV *
GeV
GeV
* But abandoning gaugino-masss unif.
Possible to have mLSP down to 7 GeV
Bottino, Donato, Fornengo, Scopel
WHICH SUSY
HIDDEN
SECTOR SUSY
BREAKING AT
SCALE F
F = (105 - 106) GeV
F = MW MPl
GRAVITY
Mgravitino ~ F/MPl ~
(102 -103) GeV
GAUGE
INTERACTIONS
Mgravitino ~ F/MPl ~
OBSERVABLE
SECTOR
SM + superpartners
MSSM : minimal content
of superfields
(102 - 103) eV
After LEP: tuning of the SUSY param.
at the % level to correctly reproduce
the DM abundance: NEED FOR A
“WELL-TEMPERED” NEUTRALINO
NEUTRALINO LSP IN THE CONSTRAINED MSSSM:
A VERY SPECIAL SELECTION
IN THE PARAMETER SPACE?
Favored by gµ -2
Favored by DM
Excluded: stau LSP
Excluded
by bsγ
Ellis, Olive, Santoso, Spanos
LSP NEUTRALINO: THE FREEDOM
IN “UN-CONSTRAINED” MSSM
GUTless Model
ELLIS, OLIVE, SANDICK
NON-UNIVERSAL HIGGS MODEL
ELLIS, FALK, OLIVE, SANTOSO
CMSSM: Regions of the param.
space favored in a likelihood analysis
GRAVITINO LSP?
• GAUGE MEDIATED SUSY BREAKING
(GMSB) : LSP likely to be the GRAVITINO ( it can
be so light that it is more a warm DM than a cold DM
candidate )
Although we cannot directly detect the
gravitino, there could be interesting signatures
from the next to the LSP ( NLSP) : for instance
the s-tau could decay into tau and gravitino,
Possibly with a very long life time, even of the order of
days or months
DIFFERENT FROM THE THERMAL HISTORY OF WIMPS
SWIMPS (Super Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)
• - LSP Gravitino in SUSY
• - First excitation of the graviton in UED …
They inherit the appropriate relic density
through the decay of a more massive thermal
species that has earlier decoupled from the
thermal bath
G. GIUDICE
DM and NON-STANDARD COSMOLOGIES
BEFORE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS
• NEUTRALINO RELIC DENSITY MAY DIFFER
FROM ITS STANDARD VALUE, i.e. the value it
gets when the expansion rate of the Universe is
what is expected in Standard Cosmology (EX.:
SCALAR-TENSOR THEORIES OF GRAVITY,
KINATION, EXTRA-DIM. RANDALLSUNDRUM TYPE II MODEL, ETC.)
• WIMPS MAY BE “COLDER”, i.e. they may have
smaller typical velocities and, hence, they may
lead to smaller masses for the first structures
GELMINI, GONDOLO
which form
DM
DE
DO THEY “KNOW” EACH OTHER?
DIRECT INTERACTION  (quintessence) WITH DARK
DANGER:
MATTER
 Very LIGHT
m ~ H0-1 ~ 10-33 eV
Threat of violation of the equivalence principle
constancy of the fundamental “constants”,…
INFLUENCE OF  ON THE NATURE AND THE
ABUNDANCE OF CDM
Modifications of the standard picture of
WIMPs FREEZE - OUT
EX.: SCALAR-TENSOR
CDM CANDIDATES
GRAVITY
CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M.,
PIETRONI, SHELCKE
NEUTRALINO RELIC ABUNDANCE IN
GR AND S-T THEORIES OF GRAVITY
SCHELKE, CATENA, FORNENGO, A.M., PIETRONI
CONSTRAINTS ON THE ENHANCEMENT OF THE
UNIV.EXPANSION RATE FROM THE LIMITS ON THE
ANTIPROTON ABUNDANCE
SCFMP
LARGER WIMP ANNIHILATION CROSSSECTION IN NON-STANDARD COSMOLOGIES
• Having a Universe expansion rate at the
WIMP freeze-out larger than in Standard
Cosmology possible to provide a DM
adequate WIMP population even in the
presence of a larger annihilation crosssection ( Catena, Fornengo, A.M., Pietroni)
• Possible application to increase the present
DM annihilation rate to account for the
PAMELA results in the DM interpretation
(instead of other mechanisms like the
Sommerfeld effect or a nearby resonance)
El Zant, Khalil, Okada
ARKANI-AHMED, FINKBEINER, SLATYER, WEINER
SPIN - INDEPENDENT NEUTRALINO PROTON CROSS SECTION FOR ONE OF
THE SUSY PARAM. FIXED AT 10 TEV
PROFUMO, A.M., ULLIO
Neutralino-nucleon scattering cross sections along the WMAP-allowed coannihilation strip
for tanbeta=10 and coannihilation/funnel strip for tanbeta=50 using the hadronic parameters
ELLIS, OLIVE, SAVAGE
Ellis, Olive, Sandick
LHC
Sensitivity
PROSPECTS FOR DISCOVERING THE
CMSSM AT THE LHC IN LIGHT OF WMAP
RED: FULL SAMPLE OF
CMMS MODELS
BLUE: POINTS
COMPATIBLE WITH WMAP
GREEN: POINTS
ACCESSIBLE TO LHC
YELLOW: POINTS
ACCESSIBLE TO PRESENT
DIRECT DM SEARCHES
Ellis et al.
PREDICTION OF Ω DM FROM LHC AND ILC FOR
TWO DIFFERENT SUSY PARAMETER SETS
BALTZ, BATTAGLIA, PESKIN, WIZANSKY
LFV - DM CONSTRAINTS IN MINIMAL
SUPERGRAVITY
A.M., Profumo, Vempati, Yaguna
NEUTRALINO LSP IN SUPERGRAVITY
A.M., PROFUMO, ULLIO
A.M., PROFUMO,ULLIO
SEARCHING FOR
WIMPS HYPOTHESIS
DM made of particles with
mass 10Gev - 1Tev
ELW scale
WIMPs
LHC, ILC may
PRODUCE WIMPS
WIMPS escape the detector
MISSING ENERGY
SIGNATURE
With WEAK INTERACT.
FROM “KNOWN” COSM. ABUNDANCE OF WIMPs
PREDICTION
FOR WIMP PRODUCTION AT COLLIDERS WITHOUT SPECYFING
THE PART. PHYSICS MODEL OF WIMPs
BIRKEDAL, MATCHEV, PERELSTEIN ,
FENG,SU, TAKAYAMA
SMOKING GUN(S) FOR DM?
N. Weiner, La Thuile March ‘09
DAMA/LIBRA
TeV DM?
•
•
•
•
PAMELA anti-proton and positron fractions
FERMI and HESS electron+positron flux
FERMI (preliminary) diffuse γ rays
HESS and VERITAS observations of γ raysfrom the
Galactic Center ( with new –preliminary - HESS data),
the Galactic Ridge and dwarf galaxies
• SuperKamiokande up-going neutrino-induced muon flux
PAMELA, FERMI and HESS observations point to nonconventional DM models with
-- Leptophilic final states
-- Large “Event rates” in our galaxy
-- High mass scale of O(TeV)
• Absence of any sharp feature at low scale in the
new FERMI data  DM LIGHTER THAN
ABOUT A TeV IS NOW EXCLUDED AS
AN INTERPRETATION OF THE PAMELA
EXCESS  PAMELA should find a greater
positron fraction at higher energies
• TeV DM: if the electron-positron excess is
everywhere in the DM halo, the Inverse
Compton Scattering on ambient light
produces a gamma-excess above 10
GeV that can be tested by FERMI
gamma observations
Maede, Papucci, Strumia and Volansky
0905.0480
Maede, Papucci, Strumia, Volansky ‘09
MPSV 0905.0480
Some final thoughts
• Very solid evidence of ( a large amount of) NONBARYONIC COLD DM
• In the SM NO CANDIDATE FOR COLD DM ( ordinary
neutrinos are hot DM; indeed, the best limit on neutrino
masses comes from cosmology!)
• WIMPS: (very) appealing COSMO (HBB SM) –
PARTICLE (GWS SM) “conspiracy” in providing the
(quantitatively and qualitatively) right DM
• WIMPS can be part of the NEW PHYSICS at the ELW
scale ( link ultraviolet completion of the SM – DM
constituents)
• Possibility of a joint cosmo – and particle –
exploration of the TeV New Physics
• If WIMP is the DM: complementary hunting for TeV
New Physics at LHC and in DIRECT and INDIRECT
searches of DM
ON THE LHC – DM –FCNC COOPERATION
TO CORNER TeV NEW PHYSICS
•
The traditional competition between direct and indirect
(DM,FCNC, CPV) searches to establish who is going to see the
new physics first is no longer the priority, rather
•
COMPLEMENTARITY between direct and indirect searches for
New Physics is the key-word
•
Twofold meaning of such complementarity:
i)
synergy in “reconstructing” the “fundamental theory” staying
behind the signatures of NP;
ii) coverage of complementary areas of the NP parameter space (
ex.: multi-TeV SUSY physics)
SLOW “DECOUPLING” of NEW PHYSICS
EFFECTS in DM and FCNC SEARCHES w.r.t.
the DIRECT ACCELERATOR SEARCHES.

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