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ATA 641
Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak
The First Part (Seven Weeks)
Political and Economic Transformation
a) The Second Constitutional Era [1908-1920]
b) The Single-Party Era [1923-1946]
The Second Part (Seven Weeks)
The Social and Cultural Transformation
a) The Second Constitutional Era [1908-1920]
b) The Single-Party Era [1923-1946]
Week I
The Young Turks and the Unionists: Nationalist Response
to Nationalisms
Genç [Jön]Türkler - Osmanlı İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti
The Young Turk Revolution of 1908; the Ottoman
Parliament; the Balkan Wars, Word War I; the National
Economy; the Emancipation of Woman
Roderic H. Davison, “From Empire to Republic, 1909-1923,” in
Turkey, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1968, pp. 109-127.
Feroz Ahmad, “The Constitutional Revolution, Reform, and War,
1908-1918,” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld,
2003, pp. 49-73.
Week II
War and Peace: A Path towards a Homogeneous Nation
The Fall of the Ottoman Empire; the Armistice; The
Sèvres Treaty; The Struggle for Independence; the
Lausanne Treaty.
Cihan Harbi – Mütareke – Milli Mücadele
Zafer Toprak, “Nationalism and Economics in the Young Turk Era
(1908-1918),” in Industrialisation, Communication et Rapports
Sociaux en Turquie et en Mediterranée Orientale,(eds. Jacques Thobie
et Salgur Kançal) Paris; L’Harmattan, 1994, s. 260-266.
A. L. Macfie, “The End of the Ottoman Empire,” in The End of the
Ottoman Empire, 1908-1923, Longman, 1998, pp. 182-208.
Week III
From Empire to Nation: The Emergence of Modern
The 1924 Constitution; the Republican People’s Party;
Early Reforms; the Legal Reception Movement; the Great
Speech and the Congress of 1927; the Uprisings.
1924 Teşkilat-ı Esasiye Kanunu – Cumhuriyet Halk
Fırkası [Partisi] – Nutuk (1927)
Bernard Lewis, “The Kemalist Republic,” chapter in The Emergence
of Modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1968, pp. 238-293.
Feroz Ahmad, “The Kemalist Era, 1919-1938” in Turkey – The Quest
for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003, pp. 75-94.
Week IV
Reforms and The Single-Party Era
The 1931 and 1935 Congresses of the RPP; The
Opposition; New Cultural Institutions and Reforms;
Turkey on the Eve of World War II.
Terakkiperver Fırka – 1931 – 1935 Kurultayları –Serbest
Kemal Karpat, “The Establishment and Development of the
Republic,” chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a MultiParty System, by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959,
pp: 32-76.
Kemal Karpat, “The Economic and Social Transformation,” chapter
in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi-Party System, by
Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp: 77-97.
Week V
Turkish Economy and Society in the Inter-War Years : 19231939
İzmir Economic Congress; National Economic Policy; Great
Depression; Economic Recession and Distress; Economic
Planning in the 30s’; Sumerbank and Etibank
İzmir İktisat Kongresi – Milli İktisat – Büyük Buhran –
Sanayi Planları
Bent Hansen, “Postwar Recovery, 1923-29,” chapter in The Political
Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth – Egypt and Turkey, Oxford
University Press, 1991, pp. 312-318.
Bent Hansen, “The Etatist Experiment, 1929-50,” chapter in The Political
Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth – Egypt and Turkey, Oxford
University Press, 1991, pp. 319-336.
Week VI
The Second World War and the End of the Single-Party
“National Chief” and the RPP; Turkish Neutrality; War
Economy and Inflation; National Defence Law; the
Capital Tax; the Lot of the Peasantry
Milli Şef – Milli Korunma Kanunu – Varlık Vergisi –
Toprak Mahsulleri Vergisi – Çiftçiyi Topraklandırma
Kemal Karpat, “The Social Classes and Wartime Developments,”
chapter in Turkey’s Politics – The Transition to a Multi-Party System,
by Kemal H. Karpat, Princeton University Press, 1959, pp: 98-133.
Kemal Karpat, “Modern Turkey,” chapter in The Cambridge History
of Islam, volume I, edited by P.M. Hold, Ann K. S. Lambton &
Bernard Lewis, Cambridge University Press, 1970, pp. 527-565.
Week VII
The Coming of Political Democracy
Demokrat Parti
Bernard Lewis, “The Republic after Kemal,” chapter in The
Emergence of Modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, 1968, pp.
Feroz Ahmad, “Towards Multi-Party Politics and Democracy, 19381960,” in Turkey – The Quest for Identity, Oxford; Oneworld, 2003,
pp. 75-94.
Intellectual Stages of Modernity in Turkey
Secularism - Çağdaşlaşma, Batı[lı]laşma, Muasırlaşma, Asrîleşme,
The Tanzimat Reformers
[Reşit Paşa, Ali Paşa, Fuat Paşa]
The Young Ottomans
[Şinasi, Namık Kemal, Ali Suavi, Mithat Paşa]
The Young Turks
[Ahmet Rıza, Prens Sabahattin, Abdullah Cevdet]
The Unionists – The CUP [Committee of Union and Progress]
[Talat Paşa, Enver Paşa, Cemal Paşa, Ziya Gökalp]
The Republicans [Kemalists]
[Mustafa Kemal Paşa, İsmet İnönü, Celal Bayar]
Political Regimes in Turkey – Systems of Government
I - Autocracy /Absolutist Monarchy – [Mutlakiyetçi Monarşi]
Pre-Tanzimat Era – Tanzimat Era – Post Tanzimat Era
II - Constitutional Monarchy [Meşruti (Anayasal) Monarşi]
a) The First Constitutional Era [1876-1878]
b) The Second Constitutional Era [1908-1920]
İkinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi
III – The Republican Regime [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti]
a) The Single-Party Era [1923-1945]
The Autoritarian Modernity
b) The Multi-Party Era [1946 -2006]
The Political Democracy
Political Regimes in Turkey – Systems of Government
The Dynastic Period – Devlet-i Al-i Osman – Ottomans
Sultan – Supreme Authority
I - Autocracy /Absolutist Monarchy – [Mutlakiyetçi Monarşi]
a) The Classical Era [1299 – 1789] from Osman to Selim III
Sögüt – Bursa – Edirne – İstanbul
b) The Modern Era [1789-1822]
Selim III, Mahmut II, Abdülmecit, Abdülaziz, Abdülhamit II,
Mehmet Reşat, Vahdettin
I ) The Classical Era – Social Strata
The Palace entourage – Kapıkulu
a) Seyfiye [Army],
b) Kalemiye [Primitive Bureaucracy],
c) İlmiye [Religious authorities]
The Reaya – Peasantry (Subjects of the Sultan)
The Guilds [Lonca] and Merchants
Lack of middling strata (bourgeoisie) – Middle Class
II ) The Modern Era
The Nation-State Process
The Making of Ottoman Middling Strata – Middle Class
The Emergence of Nationalisms
The liberterian Ideas – Public opinion – Civil society
The Emergence of Ottoman Intelligentsia
II - Constitutional Monarchy [Meşruti (Anayasal) Monarşi]
a) The First Constitutional Era [1876-1878]
Birinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi
The First Constitution [Kanun-ı Esasi 1876]
The First Parliament [Mebusan Meclisi – Ayan Meclisi 1877-78]
b) The Second Constitutional Era [1908-1920]
İkinci Meşrutiyet Dönemi
III – The Turkish Republic [Türkiye Cumhuriyeti]
a) The Single-Party Era [1923-1945]
b) The Multi-Party Era [1946 -2006]
Emergence of Ottoman middling strata in the 19th century
The New Bureaucracy (Weberian type)
The Tanziman men
The Tanzimat Edict [Tanzimat Fermanı] (1839)
Rational, Professional
Tanzimat Reforms
The Centralization of the State
A Modern State Apparatus – Ministries etc.
A Modern Army
New Financial and Economic Structure
New Legislations – Codes borrowed from abroad
New generations trained in Secular High Schools
Civil Service Academy (Mülkiye Mektebi )
War Academy (Harbiye Mektebi)
Medical College (Tıbbiye Mektebi)
The Young Turk Era in Turkish History 1908-1950
The Young Turk movement 1889 - Ottoman patriotism
Who are the Young Turks ?
An organized opposition of reformist Ottoman patriots
Against absolutist regime of Abdulhamid II
to reinstate constitution & parliament
to propagate liberal and constitutional ideas
European circle - Ottoman constitutionalists in exile
Ahmed Rıza - Ottoman nationalist - Unionist
Prens Sabahattin - liberal, minimal government, free enterprise
Aptullah Cevdet - Westernist
Congresses of Ottoman liberal and reformists in Paris – 1902 and
Young Turk Era 1908-1918
harbinger / forerunner of Republican Turkey
Fortells the coming of a new regime / state
Political changes
The burgeoning of secular nation-state
The rise of constitutionalism
Basic rights – Citizens
Socio-economic and cultural changes
The new economic policy – Import Substitution – National Economy
Secularization - Emancipation of women
The officers from
the Third (Macedonian) and Second (Edirne) armies
coming from the lower middle class
1906-1908 increasing discontent
- rising prices
- payment of salaries was in arrears
Signs of discontent
Strikes + small-scale uprisings
Macedonian problem
Foreign control
The elections 1908 – Two-tier model [İki dereceli seçim]
First electors – Second electors
The CUP – the Committee of Union and Progress
[İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti [Fırkası]
Mehmed Cavid, Finance minister in June 1909
Mehmed Talat, Interior minister in August 1909 The Party of Ottoman Liberals – [Osmanlı Ahrar Fırkası]
splinter group which broke away from CUP – February 1910
The Party of Freedom and Understanding November 1911
[Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası]
The Ottoman Socialist Party
[Osmanlı Sosyalist Fırkası]
The Counter-revolution - April 1909 [31 Mart Vak’ası]
a) Demand for the Restoration of the Şeriat
b) The Dismissal of the cabinet
c) Seclusion of Muslim women – liberated by the new regime
The Third Army and its Unionist supporters
denounced the mutiny as unconstitutional
Officers loyal to the constitution organized
The Action Army [Hareket Ordusu] led by Mahmut Şevket Paşa
set out from Salonica
to restore order in Istanbul & punish the mutineers
Abdülhamit II toppled from power
ratified by the fetva, a legal opinion, issued by the Şeyhulislam
the accession to sultanate of Mehmet (V) Reşat (65)
The liberal and conservative opponents of the CUP crushed
Mahmut Şevket Paşa dominant force – virtual dictator of the new
Unionists – his junior partners
Serious blows struck at the new regime
Bulgaria declared its independence – October 1908
Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia Herzegovina
Crete announced its decision to unite with Greece
Uprisings – Albania, Yemen (İmam Yahya)
The occupation of Tripolitania [Trablusgarp] by Italy - 1911
The Balkan War [Balkan Harbi / Savaşı ] - 1912-1913
1912 – Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Bulgaria - Ottoman Empire
The Treaty of London 1912
The Porte surrendered Edirne to Bulgaria
along with all territory west of de Erez-Midya line
The İstanbul Peace Agreement 1913
between O.E. And Bulgaria
Eastern Thrace – including Edirne & Dimotoka – to O.E.
Exchange of populatitions
The Babıali Coup [Babiali Baskını]
Mahmut Şevket Paşa as Grand Vizier and War Minister
Unionist – junior partners
Mahmut Şevket Paşa assasinated
CUP monopoly of power from 1913 onwards
1913 Constitutional amendments
Took away power from the sultan vested it in the legislature (parliament) and the cabinet
A program of political, social & economic reforms
A) Military Reform - Reorganization of the army
Older officer corps purged
B) Administrative reform - Provincial administration decentralization (adem-i merkeziyet)
C) Abolition of the capitulations 1914 - Unilateral
Priviledges bestowed to foreigners
The Great War - The First World War
Harb-ı Umumî – Cihan Harbi – Birinci Dünya Savaşı
Secularization – Laiklik
A) Judicial System
B) Educational System
C) Emancipation of Women
A) The Judicial Unification [Tevhid-i Adalet]
i) Removal of the Şeyhülislam (highest religious authority)
from the cabinet (1916) + his jurisdiction limited
ii) Religious courts [Şer’i Mahkemeler]
under the control of the Ministry of Justice
iii) The Foundation of the Ministry of Religious Foundations
[Evkaf Nezareti]
B) The Educational Unification [Tevhid-i Tedrisat]
i) Religious colleges (medrese)under
the Ministry of Education [Maarif Nezareti]
ii) The modernization of the Curricula of the higher medreses
C) Emancipation of Women
Private sphere versus public sphere
i) Law on inheritance, based on German code (1913)
ii) Family law (the territory of the Şeriat)
Decree for Family Law - [Hukuk-ı Aile Nizamnamesi] (1917)
-Uniformity of all Ottoman subjects
a) Right to take initiative for divorce
b) Marriages before a magistrate
c) Brides to be aged over 16
Position of women
Ideology : The policy of the CUP (state feminism)
The effects of the World War – Lack of manpower
compensated for by women
hastened the entry of women into the labour market
Women became visible
Women took part in social life
Women appeared in public
Women went to theatres and musical performances
Meetings - Speeches in nationalist clubs
Girls - the schooling system at different levels
Primary education compulsory for girls (1913)
Higher education - the teacher training colleges
Courses at the University (1914) – [İnas Darülfünunu]
World War I
The Ottoman Society for the Employment of Women
[Osmanlı Kadınları Çalıştırma Cemiyet]
The Making of Civil Society
The Concept of Citizenry
Law for the Associations [Cemiyetler Kanunu] 1909
Philanthropic – Communitarian - Labour - Women associations
Nationalist organizations - Turkish Hearths [Türk Ocakları] 1911
Committee of National Defence [Milli Müdafaa Cemiyeti ]
(1913) - created a strong “home front” - the Balkan War
Participation in politics – Public Opinion
Political game became less elitist
It also became more brutal
The Age of Ideologies
1914 - 1945
The Young Turk Era
Laboratory for Turkish Republic
1913 – a turnaround in the ideological currents
Stages of Turkish Nationalism
a) First stage – The proto stage
Cultural (literary and linguistic) movement
in the 19th century – up to 1908
Symbol: Namık Kemal
b) Second stage – The Metamorphosis
Economic and social movement 1908-1918
Ziya Gökalp
c) Third stage - The final stage
Political movement 1919-1923
Mustafa Kemal
Late comers – Italy – Germany - Turkey
Similarity with German Stages after Ziya Gökalp
a) First stage –
The proto stage
Cultural (literary and linguistic) movement
up to the 1840s’
Symbol: Fiche
b) Second stage – The Metamorphosis
Economic and social movement up to 1870s’
c) Third stage - The final stage
Political movement – German Unity
Bismarck from 1870s’
National Economy after Friedrich List
(German economist – opponent of classical economics)
State economics (Devlet iktisadiyatı)
a neo-mercantilist policy
a prototype of statism
Insistence on “economic independence”
support for indigenous (local) capital
foreign capital = exploitation
National credit institutions (milli banka)
Support for national bourgeoisie (millî burjuvazi)
From economic liberalism to national economy– Milli İktisat)
a) Free Trade
imposed on Turkey by capitulations
Classical liberal point of view
Removal of traditional barriers - guilds
New and modern legislation on transactions & ownership
b) Institutions :
Chambers of commerce (Ticaret Odaları)
c) Labor Disputes
Social unrest & strikes 1908
Labour legislation – 1909 - Legislation on strikes
Ban on trades-unions and strikes
favoured entrepreneurs
d) Agriculture
a) Property rights of the landowners
b) Modernization & investment in agriculture
(irrigation projects + infrastructural works + credit facilities)
Modern Finances
Modern Budget in 1909 prepared by Cavit Bey
Minister of Finances
Unified and general budget
Increase in incomes
inspection & collection of taxes
Budget control through Parliament = Democracy
National Economic Policy
Balkan Wars - a new era - to reliance upon internal strata
Loss of Salonica (1912)
shift of political center (CUP) to Istanbul
The Rise of Nationalism
Statist and Neo-mercantilist Era
State Economics – Devlet İktisadiyatı
radical steps – liberalism challenged
Economic liberalism = low customs duties
jeopardized interests of the local producers
Complaint of the Muslim merchants
unequal competition by foreigners and non-Muslims
due to capitulations
Old style, well-organized trade corporations (petty producers)
versus non-Muslim mercantile interests
Muslim-Turkish artisans and merchants - backbone of the new
nationalist ideology
The Rise of “National Bourgeoisie”
Protectionalism = Import Substitution
Economic nationalism
neo-mercantilism or protectionism
liberalism and free trade – comparative advantages
Liberal [classical] economics of Adam Smith– not universal
suits industrialized economy & imperialistic policies
Free trade – beneficial policy for England not for Turkey
Nation as an economic unity – (agriculture & industry & trade)
A complete whole – Küll-i tam
Import Substitution – Home Product (Yerli Malı)
1909 Bursa Exposition – Bursa Sergisi
Austro-Hungarian Boycott 1908 –
Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina
Muslim boycott of 1913 – National economic policy
Muslims to purchase from their co-religious shopkeepers
The Spirit of Industrialization
Decree for the Encouragement of Industry (1913)
[Teşvik-i Sanayi Kanunu]
Joint-stock companies, indigenous – national [milli]
cooperatives & banking institutions
The Industrial census 1913-1915
Economic periodicals
Sanayi Mecmuası – İktisadiyat Mecmuası
TheNational Industrialists Society
(Millî Fabrikacılar Cemiyeti)
War Economics – The Great War (1914-1918)
Financial & Economic Independence
Capitulations abolished in 1914 - Public Debts postponed
New customs tariffs
specific and selective [protective] tariffs
ad-volarem [liberal] tariffs
protective measures for the infant industries and local products
National market
National economic policy – the motto of both CUP & RPP
Social basis of National Liberation War (Milli Mücadele)
Employment of Muslims in economic & financial sectors
Imperative language - Turkish
in business correspondence and official accounting
Allocation mechanism – Rationing (İaşe)
Kara Kemal – architect of the “national economy program” –
founder of the Special Trade Commission
“national” joint-stock companies – Milli Şirketler
The Ministry of Rationing – İaşe Nezareti
Creation of Muslim monopoly of trade - capital accumulation
Guilds encouraged to invest in national companies
Reversal of official policy – CUP had abolished the guilds
Created “trade associations” in their places
Support for “national bourgeoisie”
capital accumulation
by small merchants of Muslim & provincial origins
Price policy during WWI
favoring Anatolian large farmers = Accumulation for Agrarian
National Banking Institutions
National Credit Bank - İtibar-ı Milli Bankası (1917)
Substitute for the Ottoman Bank
Merged with İş Bankası in 1927
Local banking institutions in Anatolia
under the aegis of CUP local clubs
Muslim provincial notables & moneyed men
Support for CUP policies
Support for National Struggle
1918 – 1923
The Mudros Armistice 31 October 1918
(Mondros Mütarekesi)
The Congress of Erzurum 23 July 1919
The Congress of Sivas 4 September 1919
The Treaty of Sevres
10 August 1920
The National Pact (Misak-ı Milli)
20 January 1920
The Lausanne Peace Treaty 24 July 1923
The Mudros Armistice 31 October 1918
(Mondros Mütarekesi)
25 articles = amounted to Ottoman capitulation
Military occupation of the straits
Control of railway and telegraph lines
Demobilization and disarmament
except to keep law and order
Surrender of Ottoman troops in Arab provinces
The freeing of Entente POW
German & Austrian military personnel (two months)
Article 7: the most dangerous clause
The right to occupy any place if ... security ... threatened
Ottomans evacuated Musul - Occupation of Mosul
Article 24
The right to intervene militarily in the “Armenian” provinces
The Congress of Erzurum 23 July 1919
Society for the Defence of Rights of Eastern Anatolia
Şarki Anadolu Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti
Representative Committee – Heyet-i Temsiliye
Mustafa Kemal Paşa – its president
The Congress of Sivas 4 September 1919
Society for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Thrace
Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti
The Treaty of Sevres
10 August 1920 - Severe terms imposed
The O.E. Rump (remnant) state in northern Anatolia
Thrace and İzmir to Greece
Straits internationalized
Independent Armenia created in eastern Anatolia
- French mandates in Syria & Lebanon
Palestine, Transjordan, & Iraq (Mosul) - British mandates
South-western part of Anatolia to Italy
[Kurdistan] – to receive autonomy – right to appeal for
Elections – Autumn 1919 for Istanbul parliament
Unionists in control
Salvation of the Fatherland Group
( Felâh-ı Vatan Cemiyeti )
The National Pact (Misak-i Milli)
20 January 1920
Official & fundamental statement of
the resistance movement
based on the resolutions in Erzurum and Sivas
The National Pact – Misak-ı Milli
An indivisible whole:
Territories inhabited by Ottoman Muslim majority
Arab territories - plebiscite
Kars, Ardahan and Batum – plebiscite
Western Thrace - plebiscite
Security of Istanbul and Marmara Sea
Economic, financial and judicial independence
No return to capitulations
Turning Point
Greek Occupation of Izmir (May 1919)
Protests - Mass demonstrations -
The British occupation of Istanbul (16 March 1920)
to put pressure on the nationalists
Administration: Allied Commissions of Control and Organization
Ottoman Parliament prorogued itself in protest
(2 April 1920)
The Peace Treaty of Lausanne
The last Ottoman
Ankara’s proposal: İzmir
Hosts - Britain, France, Italy and Greece
Ankara & Istanbul invited to send delegations
Grand vizier Ahmet Tevfik Paşa: suggested a joint delegation
Furore in Ankara
Abolition of the Sultanate ( 1 November 1922)
Vahdeddin fled the country / to Malta (17 November 1922)
His cousin - Abdülmecit Efendi - caliph, not a sultan
Turkish delegation led by İsmet İnönü
loyal and dependable supporter
Rauf Orbay, known as an Anglophile
Conference - First Phase - 20 November 1922
Instruction to İnönü: not to deviate from National Pact
Discussions extremely difficult
Diffirent perspectives of the two sides
The Entente: victors of the Great War
Adjustment of the terms of Sevres
Turkey: victors in the National Struggle
Sevres: Past history
Turkey not considered equal partners in the beginning
Problems discussed: three headings:
a) Territorial and military
b) Economic and financial
c) Position of foreigners and minorities
[Exchange of population]
February 1923 - territorial problems solved
(the border in Thrace, the future of the straits)
Mosul question postponed
Second Phase - Reconvened - 23 April 1923
Greek and Turkish delegations solved their problems.
Small border correction in Thrace
in exchange for renouncing war reparations
The Entente insisted on economic and judicial concessions in
exchange for recognition of the abolition of capitulations
Complete sovereignty of Turkish state
Agreement reached on 17 July 1923
Treaty signed on 24 July 1923
Ratified on 21 August 1923
Turkey emerged as a sovereign state
The Goals of National Pact basically attained
Capitulations remained abolished
No supervision over Turkish judicial system
Foreigners subject to the Turkish courts
Customs tariffs valid until 1929
Turkey to honour all existing foreign concessions
The Straits zone internationalized under a commission &
demilitarized /
except for a garrison of up to 120.000 men in Istanbul
No mention of Armenia or Kurdistan
Minorities, Turkey bound itself to protect its citizens, regardless of
creed, nationality or language
All wartime reparation claims renounced
Turkey accepted an amnesty: except 150 opponents of the
Nationalists [Yüz Ellilikler]
British troops left Istanbul – 1 October 1923
10 years of continuous warfare 1912-1922
Depopulated, impoverished & in ruins
Large-scale migration
1914 - 1924
Anatolian population declined by % 30
% 10 migration & % 20 warfare mortality
2.500.000 Anatolian Muslims
900.000 Greeks and Armenians
Populism - Solidarism
Philosophy = Solidarism
Political Ideology = Populism
CUP ideological framework of both CUP & RPP
prerequisites of nation state
Populism - Halkçılık
Solidarism - Tesanütçülük / Dayanışmacılık
combination of
German “national economy”
French “solidarism”
Social Philosophy of CUP - New Life (Yeni Hayat)
Ziya Gökalp – disciple of Durkheim
Solidarism - from Third French Republic
division of labour versus class conflict
Durkheim versus Marx
National economy
market economy with advanced division of labor
organic solidarity (functional interdependence)
national coherence - unity rather than plurality
Corporatist version of Solidarity
Ziya Gökalp 1874 - 1924
Türkçülüğün Esasları – The Principles of Turkism 1923
Three Dicta / Saying
1. No Individual but Society
(Fert yok, Cemiyet var)
2. No Classes but Professional Occupations
(Sınıf yok, Esnaf var)
3. No Rights but Duties
No Classes But Occupational Groups
(Sınıf yok, Esnaf var)
Rejection of class conflict
no class tensions or economic egoism,
Corporatism – Meslekçilik
Guild economy – Guild socialism
Occupational solidarity – Small Commodity Producers
Social Democratic version of Solidarity
Economic Ideology– Tekin Alp – Social Democracy
influenced by German “national economy” & “social economy”
Inevitability of classes in a capitalist system
Advance in civilization = capitalist development
Nationalism to strengthen capitalism
Economic development and industrialization under state supervision
Friedrich List – (German) National Economy
mentor of Unionist economists (Tekin Alp)
pioneer of protectionalism in Europe
Principles for economic redress in Germany
Emile Durkheim - (French) Division of labour
mentor of Unionist sociologists (Ziya Gökalp)
Mechanical solidarity - Organic solidarity
Ferdinand Tönnies (German ) – Gökalp’s reconciliation
Culture vesus civilization ( Hars - medeniyet)
Culture vesus civilization ( Hars - medeniyet)
Barrowed from Ferdinand Tönnies (German sociologist)
Culture –( hars) = set of values and habits current within a
Civilization – (medeniyet) = rational, international system of
knowledge, science and technology
Social consequences of national capitalism
Speculation, blackmarket
disparities in income – New wealth created in the countryside
Individual interests endangered public well being
Social unity necessitated “sociology”
– a panacea [remedy – cure] for Ottoman social disintegration –
prescription: solidarism as u unifying principle
Populism - synonym of democracy
to eradicate social Darwinism & install “social politics”
State interfered on behalf of have-nots (poor people)
Harp Zengini [War profiteer] – Harp Fakiri
The New Path (Yeni İstikamet)
social revolution (içtimai inkılab)
based upon populism (halkçılık)
State acting as intermediary between public & private sectors
Competing ideologies
-currents of thought –
-– not mutually exclusive –
Ottomanism (Ottoman nationalism / patriotism ) - Osmanlıcılık
Islamism (Traditional & Modernist or Reformist) - İslamcılık
Turkism -Turkish Nationalism - Türkçülük, Türk Milliyetçiliği
Competing ideologies
Westernism - Muasırlaşmak, Avrupalılaşmak, Asrileşmek
Modern vesion: Çağdaşlaşmak
Solidarism – Tesanütçülük (Dayanışmacılık)
Populism – Halkçılık (Sosyal Demokrasi)
Corporatism – Meslekçilik (Korporatizm)
Socialism – İştirakiyyun (Sosyalizm)
Ottomanism: Millet – Official ideology of the State until 1922
union of the different communities around the Ottoman throne
1908 Revolution – New Vocabulary
- Emergence of citizen
- Conception of people
- Invention of society
- Eulogizing individual
(Fert – Birey)
Constitutional Citizenship / Anayasal Vatandaşlık
in 1876 Constitution
A new constitutional state
meşruti monarşi / anayasal monarşi
Osmanlı Vatandaşı
All subjects,
irrespective of creed (religion) or language or race
considered as loyal citizens
with equal rights
1924 Constitution – Türk vatandaşı / yurttaşı
Ümmet [Community] rather than Millet [Nation]
A - Regeneration on the basis of Islamic practices [Asr-ı saadet]
B - Solidarity within the Islamic community (Ümmet) /
Internationalism based on religion
Modernist Islam versus Traditionalist Islam
Political discourse = Panislamism – Political unity
Pan-Islamic current - Heyday during Abdulhamit’s reign
Only adoption of Western techniques keeping Islamic values/culture
CUP Islamism – Political expediency after 1913
1. Internal = Loyalty of the Arabs
2. External = Support of Muslim colonies
Holy war (Cihad) declared in 1914
aiming at uniting the world Muslims behind the Ottoman State
Islamic discourse during the National Liberation War
Political expediency to unite the country
The invaders [non-Muslim]
Islamic modernists or reformists
a) Şeriat - compatible with modernity (Namık Kemal)
Mecelle as Civil Code
b) Regeneration - Return to Islamic values
Ümmet (Islamic community) could strengthen the Empire
Sait Halim Paşa, Mehmet Akif (Ersoy)
Several leaders of the National struggle = Progressive Republican
Party – Terakkiperver Fırka wanted to keep the Khalifate
Turkish Nationalism (a latecomer) :
response to separatist nationalisms
Last nationalism in the Ottoman Empire
Against particularist goals of:
Greek, Serbian, Bulgarians, Armenian, Arab & Albanian
I - Expentionist Nationalism – Pan Turkism
Ethnic Type
II - Conservative Nationalism - Turkism
Religious type
III – Liberal Nationalism – Patriotism
Cultural type
Variety of Turkish Nationalism - I
Expentionist Nationalism
First Type: up to 1918
Turkism / Pan-Turkism (Turkic / ethnic type)
Central Asia
Turan = (Originally) Cultural bind
Ultra-nationalists = Political ideology
Union of Turkic peoples under Ottoman flag
Variety of Turkish Nationalism - II
Conservative Nationalism – Religiously motivated
Second Type: 1919 -1923
Turkish nationalism (Religious type) – Anatolia & Islam
To mobilize Anatolian people against invaders
Turkic & Islamic cultures combined
Variety of Turkish Nationalism - III
Liberal Nationalism – Patriotism [Yurtseverlik]
Third Type: from 1924
Happy is he who calls himself a Turk
Ne Mutlu Türküm Diyene
rather than “Türk Olana”
Opposed the idea of birth, blood, or ethnicity
Turkish nationalism (Secular type) – Anatolia & secularity
Cultural rather than Ethic or Racial Binding
Anatolian civilizations & western values
Expansinist Nationalism
The impact of the migrants
Hüseyinzade Ali, Ahmet Ağaoğlu, Yusuf Akçura
(Üç Tarz-ı Siyaset - Three Types of policy - 1904)
by Yusuf Akçura
Relative merits of Islamist, Ottomanist and Turkist policies
Türk Ocağı (Turkish Hearth)
Social and cultural clubs
theatrical and musical performances
Türk Yurdu (Turkish Homeland)
Republican years:
influenced by fascist regimes in Europe
Tended to adopt the docmatic, ethnic, and linguistic interpretation of
Turkish nationalism (Third type) – Moderate Nationalism
concentrates on Anatolia as the Turkish heartland
intertwined with populism
Halka Doğru (Towards the people)
periodical (İstanbul – 1913) & organization (İzmir - 1917)
idealized the culture of the Turkish peasant population
(halkiyyat - ethnography)
Ziya Gökalp
Turkish nation had its own strong culture
National pride to be reconciled
with the adoption of European ways
Islamic/Arabian + Byzantine medieval culture
to be replaced with a modern European one
while holding on to Turkish culture
Criticism to men of Tanzimat:
joining European civilization
loss of touch with the culture of their own people
Populism - Halkçılık
to create national solidarity to cure social tensions
Peasantism - (Köycülük)
Support for peasantary
Supremacy of society over the individual
Prototype of Social Democracy
State versus Civil Society
CUP officially supported Ottomanism
The urgent question:
How to bring about a synthesis of
European elements with Ottoman values.
Two Currents:
Centralist – State / Society – Ziya Gökalp
Decentralist – Individual – Prens Sabahattin
Unionist Young Turks
– Revolutionary changes –
Ziya Gökalp
The Committee of Union and Progress
İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti / Fırkası
Emphasis on state
A – Centralization
B – National Economy and State Economics
State is the logical and only means to achieve change
Liberal Young Turks
– Evolutionary changes –
Prens Sabahattin
The Party of Freedom and Understanding
Hürriyet ve İtilaf Fırkası
Emphasis on society / individual rather than state
A- Decentralization
B - Private Initiative and Liberal economics
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Cultural and civilizational change
Adoption of European techniques & ideas & way of life
Young Turk Proponent: Dr. Abdullah Cevdet
İctihad (periodical)
discarding traditional Ottoman civilization
adopting the European ways in totality
Turkey in 1923
Army recruitment – peasant population
Fronts in four corners
Eastern Anatolia: War theater 1915
Shortage of labor in agriculture / labor brigades
Suffering –
retreating armies
Armenian/ Orthodox Anatolian delocation / deportation
Disruption of infrastructure / Railways, buildings etc.
Famine / Infectious deseases
Fatal Epidemic Deseases / Pestilence
Independence War
Retreating and fleeing Greek forces
& advancing Turkish troops
High mortality rate
due to
Delocations / Deportations
Epidemics: Cholera & Typhoid
In 12 provinces
Widows among women exceeded % 30
War with Russia (1878) 93 Harbi
Balkan War of 1912-13
Muslim refugees 100.000s.
During and after Great War
Armenians migrated to
Soviet Union, France & USA - 100.000s Greeks from Western Anatolia
Treaty of Lausanne
Remainder of the Rum Orthodox – 900.000
Muslim from Greece – 400.000
Net loss of population of Anatolia between 1912-1922
From 17 to 12 million / productive human capital
Depopulation of cities
% 25 to % 18
% 80 Muslim in 1914
% 98 Muslim in 1924
Armenians 65.000
Greeks 120.000
Economic structure
Havoc (damage-destruction) wrought by wars
Physical damages
Railways & bridges
Izmir devastated by fire - 1922
Exodus of entrepreneurs and managers
Stock of industrial and commercial know-how
International trade 1/3 of pre-war level
Agriculture recuperated quickly
GNP to reach 1914 – 1930s
Ottoman Public Debts
German War debts 170 million pounds written off
Ottoman Debts consolidated
Apportioned to the successor states or territories
% 65 Turkey
End of Part 1

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