Plagiarism and Citing Sources

Report
Plagiarism and Citing Sources
How We Do What We Do
UF Honor Code
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. "On my honor, I have neither
given nor received unauthorized
aid in doing this assignment."
Plagiarism—Plagiarism.org
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“A study by The Center for Academic
Integrity found that almost 80% of
college students admit to cheating at
least once.“
“According to a survey by the
Psychological Record 36% of
undergraduates have admitted to
plagiarizing written material.”
What is Plagiarism?
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1. “Handing in someone else’s work—a
downloaded paper from the Internet or
one borrowed from a friend—and
claiming that it’s your own.”
2. “Using information or ideas that are
not common knowledge from any
source or failing to acknowledge that
source.”
What is Plagiarism?
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3. “Handing in the same paper for two
different classes.”
4. “Using the exact language or
expressions of a source and not
indicating through quotation marks and
citation that the language is borrowed.”
What is Plagiarism?
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5. “Rewriting a passage from a source
by minor substitutions of different
words but retaining the same syntax
and structure of the original.”
The Common Knowledge
Exception
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While you always have to tell readers
what information you have borrowed
and where it came from, things that are
“common knowledge” are excluded
from this. Everyone knows, for
example, that John Kennedy dies in
Dallas in 1963. This and other widely
known facts need not be cited.
Avoiding Plagiarism
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It’s fine to borrow distinctive terms or
phrases from a source, but also signal
that you’ve done so with quotation
marks.
Always cite borrowed material.
Avoiding Plagiarism
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Make a habit of using attribution tags,
signaling to your reader who is the
source of the idea, quotation, or fact.
These tags include things such as,
Tannen argues, Tannen writes,
According to Tannen.
Why Cite?
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Like a tree, knowledge in a discipline is
a living thing, from time to time losing
and adding branches, growing in new
directions.
One whose limbs am I standing?
Who has helped me to see?
Paraphrasing
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Try to say something in your own
words—keep it about the same length
as the original.
Demands you make sense of
something—reread until you understand
what the author is saying.
Good writers find their own way of
saying things.
Paraphrase Practice
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“For most of the last 500 years,
imitation was the sincerest form of
architectural flattery.”
“Houseflies not only defecate
constantly, but do so in liquid form,
which means they are in constant
danger of dehydration.”
Summarizing
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Summarizing is a reduction of longer material
into some brief statement that captures a
basic idea, argument, or theme from the
original.
Don’t misrepresent the general thrust of the
author’s ideas!
Ask, does my selective use of this source give
it a spin the author didn’t intend?
Quoting
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General Rule: The college
research paper should contain
no more than 10 or 20%
quoted material.
When to Quote
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Distinctive phrasing—when restating
the thought wouldn’t possibly do it
justice.
When the person is an expert in the
field—adds credit to your argument.
The explanation of a process or an idea
is especially clear.
Quoting Fairly
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1. Quote accurately.
2. Make sure it’s clear in your notes
that what you’re jotting down is quoted
material.
3. Beware of distorting a quote by
using it out of context.
Note Taking Tips
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1. Look for ways to connect what you
already know with what you are
reading.
2. Combine two modes of thought, two
processes: collecting and focusing,
observations of and ideas about, getting
down and opening up.
Note Taking Tips
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3. Mark up your copies of the sources:
underline, annotate, draw lines and
arrows.
4. Imagine that your notes are a
conversation with the author.
Four Motives for Using a
Source
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1. Sources can extend your thinking.
2. Sources can provide necessary
background.
3. Sources can support or exemplify a
point you want to make.
4. Sources can present opportunities for
analysis and interpretation.
Narrative Note Taking
First Layer: Story the Source
Read from beginning to end, marking up
your personal copy with underlining,
marginal notes, highlighter.
Then tell the story of the text—
chronological account.
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Narrative Note Taking
Second Layer: Rapid Summary
Reread—but selectively.
Look for things that seem to be repeated
or seem to be important assertions,
claims, or findings.
Now write a few sentences that
summarize your understanding of what
the source is saying about your topic.
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Narrative Note Taking
Third Layer: Narrative of Thought
Push the text aside and reflect:
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Before I started reading this
article/book/Web document/etc., I
thought__________, but now I
understand that_____________. That
makes me think _____________.
Introducing Quotations
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X states …………..
As the prominent philosopher X puts it,
“…..”
According to X, “…….”
X himself writes, “……..”
In her book, ………, X maintains that
“………”
Capturing Authorial Action
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X
X
X
X
X
X
X
acknowledges that……
agrees that…..
argues that…….
believes that………
claims that…..
insists that…….
questions whether…….
Introducing Quotations
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Writing in the journal Commentary, X
complains that “……”
In X’s view, “…………..”
X agrees when she writes, “…………”
X complicates matters further when he
writes, “………..”
X disagrees when he writes, “……..”
Explaining Quotations
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Basically, X is saying………..
In other words, X believes……
In making this comment, X argues
that…….
X is insisting that……………
X’s point is that……………..
The essence of X’s argument is that….
How Not to Introduce Quotes
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Both of the following are redundant and
misleading:
X asserts an idea that…… (redundant)
A quote by X says…….(misleading…it is
the writer doing the quotation.
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Ballenger, Bruce. The Curious Researcher.
5th ed. New York: Pearson, 2007.

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