Chapter 13: Asian Empires SECTION 2: MONGOL & MING EMPIRES CH. 13.2 MONGOL & MING EMPIRES Do Now Take out Homework Copy Objectives: SWBAT compare and contrast East Asian societies, politics and economies, under the rule of various Mongolian and Ming emperors. MONGOL EMPIRE (12OOS ) Who were the Mongolians? Warriors, horsemen, nomads Tribes fight each other Tribes united by Genghis Khan Mongol Empire included China, Central Asia, and extended into Eastern Europe 1. GENGHIS KHAN: MONGOL CONQUEROR United warring Mongol tribes Conquered China, Central Asia Military discipline Used cannon warfare to conquer walled cities of China GENGHIS KHAN’S MONGOL EMPIRE (1206-1227) GENGHIS KHAN GENGHI KHAN’S POLITICS: HOW DOES HE RULE? NOT oppressive to conquered people Ended the civil servant system Made states pay a tribute. DQ: What do we call such states? Think of the Tang dynasty. Rules with toleration, justice DQ: Why? Answer: Pax Mongolica (peace) Political peace = Economic growth DQ: How could war destabilize the empire’s economy? Do wars today destabilize economies? GENGHIS KHAN: ECONOMY Trade: Silk Road Trade route joining Europe, Middle East and Asia Movement of tools, food, ideas Cultural Exchanges (cultural diffusion) China windmills, gunpowder, porcelain, playing cards to Europe Papermaking technology to the Middle East in return for crops and trees 2. KUBLAI KHAN POLITICS: HOW DOES HE RULE? Conquests south China (1279) – Vietnam Yuan Dynasty Rules from Cambulac (Beijing) Military and high government jobs reserved for Mongolians DQ: Why? Tolerant toward other religions & visitors Welcomes visitors Marco Polo Italian merchant, lives there 17 years Writes a book about Asia’s wealth Europeans become interested in China WHY? KUBLAI KHAN’S MONGOL EMPIRE YUAN DYNASTY KUBLAI KHAN: ECONOMY Extended the Grand Canal to Beijing Trade with Europe, Middle East Economy is thriving Problems: large empire = large costs 3. ZHU YUANZHANG: POLITICS Chinese peasant leader who organized an army Takes China back from Mongols Ming Dynasty Pushes Mongols past the Great Wall Restored the civil service system Restored Confucianism – emphasis on duty, honesty, loyalty MING EMPIRE 3. ZHU YUANZHANG: ECONOMY Economy thrives Improved farming: surplus of rice Farm crops from Europe and America (corn, sweet potatoes) Cities: artisans make porcelain, tools, paper Technology: print books Art: blue-white porcelain vases, literature, world’s 1st detective stories, poetry, opera 4. ZHENG HE (1405) Promoted China’s power overseas (Middle East, Africa) Sailed with 162 ships Collected tributes from other states Confucian scholars criticize Zheng He See no reason for exploration Say it is too costly Want to preserve ancient traditions and do not want foreign influences in China. CLOSING : REVIEW Who were the four emperors we learned about? Which ones were Mongolians? Describe the empire under their rule. Which ones were Chinese? Who established the Ming dynasty? Describe China during the Ming dynasty. JOURNAL: Which of these 4 emperors do you think was the most successful? Use examples to support your answer.