Grade 4 -

4th Grade Measurement
and Data Standards
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of
 4.MD.A.1: Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units
including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of
measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record
measurement equivalents in a two-column table.
Students need to understand equivalent conversions. For example 12 inches equals 1
foot, 16 ounces equals one pound, and 100 centimeters equals 1 meter.
Students learn this process by creating conversion charts.
Students will continue working with conversions in word problems. For example, Bobby
made a paper airplane that flew 6 feet. How many inches did it fly? Students will begin
solving word problems by using the conversion charts, however once they have
developed a clear understanding of the relationship of equivalent fractions, they can
begin using multiplication to find the conversion. 12 X 6 = 72.
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of
 4.MD.A.2 Use the four operations to solve word
problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid
volumes, masses of objects, and money, including
problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and
problems that require expressing measurements given
in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent
measurement quantities using diagrams such as
number line diagrams that feature a measurement
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of
4.MD.A.3: Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.
Students will learn the area formula (Area=Length X Width) and the perimeter for rectangles. They should have
already been introduced to variables and understand that they represent an unknown number.
Misconceptions: Students may confuse area and perimeter.
Students will start to learn area by counting the number of squares inside a given rectangle. They will then
move to multiplying just the number that represents the length and width of the shape to find the area.
After students understand how to find the area of a shape with all lengths given, they will find the area of a
shape with a missing length. For example, the width of a rectangle is 80 ft, and the total area is 6,400 square
feet. What is the length?
A=L x W
Perimeter: Students will understand that perimeter is the distance around the shape. To find the perimeter
students must add all sides of the shape. Students will also need to understand that rectangles have opposite
congruent sides, which is important for word problems where they are required to find the missing distance of
one or two sides of the rectangle.
6,400 = L x 80
L= 80
Represent and interpret data
 4.MD.B.4: Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in
fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and
subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots.
 Misconceptions: Students may skip numbers on the number line and use
sloppy representations of data that will hinder their analysis of the
 For this problem ask studwhat the difference would be
between the shortest and
longest ribbons.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and
measure angles
4.MD.C.5 Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common
endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement
4.MD.C.5.A An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the
rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the
circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a "one-degree angle," and can be used to
measure angles.
Students will learn how two rays form the angles and how to connect them to real world situations.
For example doing a 360 or 180 turn while skateboarding. With a 360 turn they see that they turned all the
way around and landed facing the same way they started. When making a 180 turn that means they only
made half of a 360 turn
Another real world situation they can connect this to is using a clock. By looking at where the hands are on
the clock and determining what kind of angle there is. For 360 they can see you need to make a full circle,
180 is half the circle, 90 is one quarter of the circle, and 270 is three-quarters of the circle. For example
when the clock reads 3pm the angle measure would be 90 degrees because the hands have only made a
one quarter turn.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and
measure angles
4.MD.C.6 Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of
specified measure.
Students will learn that the tool used to measure angles is a protractor. They will be able to see
that protractors measure the angle opening, which is what determines the angle measure.
Students will learn how to read a protractor precisely by being able to see if the angle is obtuse
(>90), acute (< 90), or right (= 90) and then determine if the smaller or larger numbers on the
Misconception: If the ray falls between two numbers the student could miscount the 1 degree
marks between the two numbers.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and
measure angles.
4.MD.C.7 Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the
parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real
world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown
angle measure.
The students will learn how to find unknown angles by using properties of the angles,
operations, and creating equations to help solve for the missing angle measures.
Recomposing angles means that given the measurement of one angle, you can combine two
other given angles to obtain that first angle measure.
Decomposing angles means to break them into smaller amounts.
Example: 30 degree angle could be made up of a 10 degree angle plus a 20 degree angle
put together.

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