Myers for AP, Unit 8 -- Kerri

Do now: What motivates you in life? Why?
What’s the difference between inspiration &
 DQ: Why do people go to college? (Write in logbook
w/o talking to others.)
Motivation: A need or desire that energizes behavior
and directs it toward a goal
Instinct or Evolutionary – genes produce speciesspecific behavior. (Instincts = unlearned fixed
Drive-reduction – Needs create drives (aroused,
motivated states); we work to reduce those
needs and restore homeostasis.
 Push = need for drive reduction; pull = incentives (+ or
– stimuli) to get there.
Arousal theory: We seek optimal arousal by
pursuing stimulation and information
 Needs theory: Good old Maslow
Complete the Exploration Index
Scores can range from 18-144
Why do we feel driven to stimulation?
Why is there such a variation?
Attachment connection? (Green & Campbell)
As stress increases, performance increases,
but there is a peak at a moderately high level.
If stress continues to rise, performance falls.
Four forms of sensation-seeking
 Thrill-and Adventure-Seeking: Risky but socially
acceptable activities (sky diving, race-car driving,
 Experience-Seeking: Sensation through the mind,
senses and nonconforming lifestyle
 Disinhibition: Life is boring = escape through
social drinking and partying
 Boredom susceptibility: low tolerance for
experiences that are repetitious or constant
It’s a teensy bit
controversial, and
not always fixed or
always sequential
 There’s something
new on top
Do now: Write a reflective paragraph on the
bottom of your Exploration survey – what does
your number tell you about you? What goals
might you set as a result?
 Discuss your answer from Monday
 How do your answers relate to the four theories?
 Video Clip: Intrinsic motivation
F4&list=PL26D1FB9BC3F53B78 (start at 1:52)
 Maslow self assessment & Measure of SelfActualization (assignments)
 How is homeostasis like cognitive dissonance?
Viktor Frankl – Man’s Search for Meaning
 Three years in Auschwitz and Dachau
 Calculated a 1 in 28 chance of survival
 Concluded a critical factor in survival was finding
meaning or purpose
 His approach to psychotherapy = logotherapy
 The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (assignment)
 (start
at 53:45)
 Do now: What would you do in the Alive scenario
you watched yesterday?
 Can you really know what you would do?
The need to belong
Do Now: Vocab Quiz (pre-test)
Throwback – freshman health (Hunger vs. Appetite,
reasons we eat)
Diet anecdote (the response of others)
All sorts of environmental cues everywhere
Far more access to junk food; toxic food environment
Huge portions
Motivation to Eat Scale (Assignment)
Do now: What “junk” foods are hardest for you to avoid?
What motivates you to eat them? To avoid them?
Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) – When stimulated, we eat,
even if we’re full (Large Hunger)
Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) – When stimulated,
we won’t eat, even if empty (Very Minute Hunger)
Insulin – secreted by pancreas,
controls bloods sugar
Leptin – secreted by fat cells,
increases metabolism, reduces
Orexin – secreted by
hypothalamus, triggers hunger
Ghrelin – secreted by empty
stomach, tells brain “I’m hungry”
Obestatin – secreted by stomach,
tells brain, “I’m full.”
PPY – secreted by digestive tract,
tells brain, “I’m not hungry.”
Calories in/Calories out?
Set point vs. settling point
Basal metabolic rate
Psychological considerations
How does a biopsychosocial approach relate
to the issue of hunger and obesity?
Taste preferences vary from culture to culture
What is a supertaster?
Handout: Taste Preferences Learned or
Are you an internal eater or an external
What cultural factors influence your eating
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
Binge-eating disorder
DQ: Should cheer, dance and wrestling
coaches have discussions with individual
team members about their weight? Why or
why not?
Where to Turn King County helpline:
 866-833-6546 (teen link 6-10 p.m.)
Are we turning into Wall-E?
CDC Slides
Is BMI a good measure (measure yours)
How much body fat should we have?
Is there such a thing as too little?
Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes
The dilemmas of weight discrimination and
airline seats
Given the info covered here and in the book,
write a one-page plan for accomplishing a fit
and healthy lifestyle over the next 20 years.
Do now: Where does sex fit into Maslow’s Hierarchy,
and why?
Objective: Understand the biopsychosocial aspects of
Masters & Johnson
Alfred Kinsey – The Kinsey Reports (more
controversial than M&J)
4 stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Similar to Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome
(GAS), the body’s stress response, which you learned
in 9th grade health as Alarm, Resistance and Fatigue
Two main purposes – direct development of sex
characteristics and activation of sexual behavior.
Yes, girls make testosterone, too. Important
There is a long list of sex hormones the book
doesn’t mention. Good reads: The Male Brain
and The Female Brain by Louann Brizendine
Weird fact: About 100 years ago, girls used
mature sexually at about 15; now it’s about 12.
People used to marry about 22, now it’s 25 or
later. Abstinence until marriage = waiting about
12 years instead of 7.
Does media portrayal of violence toward
women impact interactions? If so, how?
2. Where do we see sexual cues in the media, and
what is their impact on society?
3. Is viewing sexually explicit material harmful?
4. What are some key differences between men
and women in terms of how they behave
5. How does culture impact how people behave
You can get every STI/STD from oral sex (oral sex IS sex)
Anal sex is riskier than oral or vaginal sex
Several STIs can cause infertility (forever)
You can die from untreated gonorrhea, syphilis,
chlamydia, HPV, Hepatitis B and, of course, AIDS.
 The HPV vaccine doesn’t protect against all strains of the
virus, and it sometimes has significant, even lifethreatening side effects
 Media promotes unprotected promiscuity? (Watch 2 hours
of primetime television and record instances -Homework!)
 CDC study showed 39.5 sexually active US females have
Teen Pregnancy:
Minimal communication about birth control
Guilt related to sexual activity
Alcohol use
Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity
Teen abstinence
High intelligence
Religious engagement
Father presence
Participation in service learning programs
Is a cause known?
What does research suggest?
LGBTQ has expanded to LGBTQIA
Closing thoughts
Do now: A common stereotype is that women
are emotional and men are logical. Please
express your thoughts and opinions on this
Is it true that women are more emotional, or is it
true that men and women experience and
express emotions differently? Or both?
Definition of Emotion: A response of the whole
organism involving a) physiological arousal, b)
expressive behaviors, c) conscious (cognitive)
Embodied Emotion -- physiological body
Expressed Emotion -- what we can see; facial
expressions, body language, etc.)
Experienced Emotion – What we consciously
feel -- positive vs. negative
James-Lange: Physiological response comes
before emotional experience.
Cannon-Bard: Physiological response and
subjective experience of emotion happen
simultaneously upon exposure to arousing
stimulus and are separate.
Schacter-Singer: Physiology + Cognitive
label = emotion
Zajonc (ZI-yence): Emotional reactions apart
from or before our interpretations of a
LeDoux: High-road/low-road theory – some
emotions go straight to the amygdala
without visiting the cortex
Lazarus: Work on preparing people for
emotional response, either to heighten or
lessen the emotional effect of a stimulus.
The smile
The frown
DQ: How do texting and emailing affect
emotional communication?
Have you ever felt the same physiological
response for different emotions? Describe!
Who can remember what happens in the
Autonomic Nervous System when arousal
occurs? (Two parts)
Another theory: Richard Solomon –
opponent-process theory. Every emotion
triggers an opposing one. (Pleasure-pain)
Thumbs up means “up
yours” in Iran
 “Come on” gesture in
America is a romantic
solicitation in Latin
 And the “OK” symbol
in the U.S. is a
reference to your back
end in Brazil and
Shaking hands or handing
something with your left hand is
insulting in Muslim countries
Touching someone’s head in
Buddhist countries is a grave
In Qatar and Saudi, men and
women are forbidden from
publicly embracing one another.
Take your shoes off in the South
Pacific and East Asia, but don’t
show the soles of your feet in
Muslim countries
Flowers – colors symbolize
different things in different
cultures and even the number of
stems can seem lucky or unlucky
It’s insulting to talk during meals
in China and Japan and some
African countries
Refusing coffee or tea is
offensive in Arab cultures
Refusing a lei is offensive in
Text messages and emails lose
emotional context. Emoticons
can help. The smiley face is just a
way to demonstrate you’re
friendly and not hostile
Detecting Emotion (we
can on average detect
lies about 54% of the
Culture and emotion
Gender and emotion
(book details)
Changing your state of
mind with facial
Key ideas about fear,
anger and happiness
Good news: Emotions
don’t last long (even
when we think
How to be happier (this is
a common trend, and
there are websites, blogs
and even apps for it)
Not just a stimulus and
response, but the WAY
we cope
 Stress response
(sympathetic &
nervous system again)
 GAS – Alarm,
resistance, fatigue
Type A & B
 Stress and illness

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