Power point part b assessment 1- Blood artificial - Jannali

Report
Jessie Maher
What is the composition of blood?
55 % of the blood is the plasma, about 45 % is Red
blood cells, platelets and white blood cells
Plasma
-55% of the blood is plasma
- Liquid section that transports blood
cells around your body, with wastes,
nutrients, hormones, antibodies etc.
Red Blood Cells
- Makes up 45 % of the total
blood.
-Also made in bone marrow.
- Contain pigment haemoglobin
- Carries oxygen from lungs to
the cells/tissues and can remove
carbon dioxide from the tissues.
Interstitial fluid
- Doesn’t contain red blood
cells, platelets etc.
Platelets
-About 1% of the blood.
-The platelets clot the blood.
- When blood loss occurs at a wound for
example, the platelets will move to the
area of injury and clot the blood to
prevent excess blood loss.
- Platelets are made in the bone
marrow.
White Blood Cells
-Around 1% of the blood is white
blood cells.
-Also known as Leukocytes
- Made in the bone marrow, less
white blood cells than red blood cells
- Function is to fight infection,
important part of immune system- eg
phagocytes.
Diagram of the blood composition
This diagram shows that the clear plasma makes up 55% of the
blood when separated. The red blood cells makes up about 45%
of the total, and White blood cells and platelets make up a very
small percentage .
What parts of donated blood are
extracted?
List of parts that are extracted:
• Red blood cells ( Red blood cell concentrate)
•Platelets
•Plasma
•White blood cells ( White blood cell concentrate )
•Cryoprecipitate
How are the parts separated?
Whole Blood Donations
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The blood can be donated as a whole blood donation.
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This contains all the necessary parts that we need for different uses.
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After the donation, the blood bag at a laboratory for example is placed in a centrifuge.
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The centrifuge which has different speeds- separates the components of blood depending on
their weight by spinning. Lighter products ( plasma ) at the top and heavier products like Red
blood cells will move to the bottom.
• The red blood cells are separated, and the rest of the blood can be centrifuged to separate
platelets.
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The cryoprecipitate is separated from the plasma. The plasma is frozen and thawed, we can
separate this part from the plasma.
Adpheresis Donations
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The parts of the blood can also be separated when the donor is actually giving the blood.
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Apheresis is the process of the donor giving a certain part of the blood for example
platelets or plasma, and the rest of the blood is returned back to the body.
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The blood passes through to the machine that has a centrifuge, it spins and separates the
wanted substance.
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Once this single product is separated, the rest of the blood is returned back to the body.
Diagram of separation using Adpheresis
Donations
This above diagram, shows the blood is taken into
the machine, the machine separates the certain
products using centrifuge and then the products
that are not wanted/ needed are sent back to
body.
The adpheresis donation uses machine to
separate the parts of the blood donation.
Diagram of Whole blood separationcentrifuge
Use of the extracted parts
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Plasma
Plasma is the liquid section which transports blood cells and carries wastes, it also contains
clotting materials.
Given to people to increase the volume of the blood after blood loss, or to patients with
haemophilia.
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Platelets
Used for blood clotting.
Given to patients who need more clotting material, eg. after blood loss.
Also used by leukaemia patients who need more platelets for clotting.
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Cryoprecipitate
From the plasma, extracted via thawing of the frozen plasma.
Has clotting materials which are used by patients who are in surgery or have had a extreme
amount of blood loss.
Continued…
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White Blood cells
Used to fight infections, immune defence.
Given to a person who has a weak immune system, or has a disease which has
effected their immune System. Aids is an example.
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Red blood cells:
Used to increase the amount of oxygen that is taken to tissues/cells.
People who have anaemia, undergoing surgery, have a type of blood disease or
have lost large amounts of blood will be given a red blood cell concentrate to
increase the amount of oxygen that can be carried.
Important part of donated blood:
Red Blood cells
Red blood cells is one part of the blood that is separated from the blood and is
very valuable. The graph above shows the variety of uses Red blood cells have,
including already discussed anaemia patients, surgery and majority being people
with cancer and blood disease ( 34 % ).
Artificial Blood
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Artificial blood or blood substitutes aim to carry oxygen just like the red blood cells can, and
have many positives compared to the donated blood.
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Blood substitutes do not clot the blood or create immune defence.
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Blood substitutes carry oxygen to tissues and carry carbon dioxide away and to increase to
volume of the plasma.
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When a lot of blood has been lost, solutions like saline with salts or other substances are
added to the blood to increase the volume of blood.
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The artificial product is necessary, as they may not need products from a donation, they just
need a substance which can increase the volume.
Continued..
Two main types that have been tested:
• One type of artificial blood carrier is Haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Treated
haemoglobin from humans or animals, ( 2 haemoglobin are joined ) are placed in
the blood and allows a great amount of oxygen to be carried from lungs around the
body.
• Another type of artificial blood is the Perflurocarbon- based carriers which can
effectively transport oxygen around the blood in high amounts. They are joined to
lipids. This is due to their smaller size compared to red blood cells, and the fact
that they actually take in the oxygen while haemoglobin joins oxygen to it.
Clearly, the two types of blood substitutes are
much smaller than a normal red blood cell.
They have the ability to transport more oxygen
however.
The Need for artificial blood?
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Artificial blood is very important in society, especially due to the pressure on donations
as not enough people are donating , and the amount of blood products needed daily.
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As people age, and the population increases, the need and demand for blood
donations will increase. To keep up with this increase, artificial blood is a necessary
product to allow a reliable source for all people.
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The artificial blood is extremely useful as it does not have any diseases and it can be
accepted by any patient.
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The artificial blood is necessary due to the demand of blood donations. These
substitutes can last for much longer and do not need refrigeration which allows them
more accessible in many areas.
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Artificial blood can be used for emergencies when a person has lost a large
amount of blood and needs to increase the blood volume, and the oxygen carrying
ability.
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Artificial blood is compatible with all blood types, and vital for meeting demands
of rare blood types
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Artificial blood is very necessary in society, it can be used to save lives, and since
the demand is constantly increasing we need to have extra sources to cope with
the need for blood donations by using alternatives like artificial blood.
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This area needs more research , it is a very important area for health. Some
products need to be researched further, as we still cannot use artificial blood to
completely replace the function of normal blood – which has components that
allow clotting and immune defence.
Bibliography
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Books
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Jennifer, Hill. Alford, Diane. HSC Biology Excel.
2011: Pascal Press
Brotherton, Judith. Mudie, Kate. Heinemann Biology Second Edition.
2004: Heinemann
Martin, Marjory. Kinnear, Judith. Biology HSC Course 2.
2001: John Wiley and Sons Australia.
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Videos
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Blood Component Processing- 2007.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMTtS2BbehI
Internet Sites:
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http://www.lifeshare.cc/content.aspx?ID=13#doubleredcell Last Visited ( 22/11/2012)
http://www.donateblood.com.au/about-blood/three-types-of-donation Last visited ( 19/11/2012
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Blood_donation Last Visited ( 19/11/2012)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_donation Last Visited ( 18/11/2012 )
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-happens-to-donated-blood.html Last Visited ( 18/11/2012 )
http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/blood-function-and-composition/30#C3
Last Visited ( 22/11/2012)
http://www.livestrong.com/article/106131-white-blood-cells-functions/ Last Visited ( 22/11/2012)
http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/everyday-innovations/artificial-blood4.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_substitute Last Visited ( 22/11/2012)
http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/what-artificial-blood Last Visited ( 22/11/2012)

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