Holocaust/Genocide Lecture Notes

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Holocaust/Genocide
Lecture Notes
Night
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STANDARD 3.12
• 3.12 Literary Criticism: Analyze the way in
which a work of literature is related to the
themes and issues of its historical period.
(Historical approach).
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DO NOW: NIGHT/Genocide Unit
• List and briefly explain everything you know
about the Holocaust, World War II, Adolf
Hitler, and everything you know about
GENOCIDE in particular.
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Genocide
• Genocide is the deliberate and systematic
destruction of an ethnic, racial, religious, or
national group.
• The term "genocide" was coined by Raphael
Lemkin)
• from the Greek root génos (family, tribe or
race - gene); secondly from Latin -cide (—to
massacre, kill).
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Genocide
• Ethnic Cleansing: the elimination of an
unwanted ethnic group or groups from a
society, as by genocide or forced emigration.
This is just another term for GENOCIDE.
• Holocaust:(from the Greek: holos,
"completely" and kaustos, "burnt")
• Shoah: "calamity,”—catastrophe, great big
devastation.
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World War II
• Germany and the World at war from 1938 to 1945.
• Russia, America, England and others—allies.
• As Germany defeated countries in Europe, they began
deporting all Jews from the countries to POLAND—
where most of the death camps were located.
• Germany was defeated in 1945.
• Russia played a major role in the war—they lost over 25
million people fighting the Germans.
• Russia marched into Berlin, the capital of Germany in
1945, and defeated the Germans.
• As the Russians were fighting the war, they liberated(freed) many concentration camps where the Jews
were being killed.
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Map of World
• http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/world.htm
• Lets look at Germany, Russia, Armenia, Turkey
England, and Romania—the birthplace of Elie
Wiesel
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World Map
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From Talat Pasha and the Armenians
to Hitler and the Jews
Armenian Genocide—April 24, 1915
WWII 1939-1945 -- Between 1941-1945
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From the Ottoman Turks to the Nazi
Germans
Ottoman Turks
1.5 Million Armenians
Nazi Germans
6 Million Jews
Both countries combined are responsible for the murder, rape,
and torture of over 7.5 Million men, women, and children.
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From Hitler to Saloth Sar to Slobodan
Milošević
President of Yugoslavia-Responsible for killed
hundreds of thousands of ethnic Albanians. He
thought the Albanians were inferior and wanted a
pure, ethnically clean Serbia for only pure Serbs.
Saloth Sar-AKA Pol Pot, was
responsible for the killing of
over a million Cambodians in
1970s.
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Milosovich to Pot
Over 1 Million Cambodians Killed-1970s
Serbs kill over 350,000 Albanians-1994
Over 500,000 Sudanese Murdered in Darfur- Happening
NOW 2008
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It Starts with the Armenians
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The Armenian Genocide
• Starting in 1915, Turkey systematically murdered
over 1.5 million Armenians.
• The Armenian Genocide is remembered every
year on April 24.
• April 24, 1915 is when the Turks first started
massacring the Armenians.
• Reasons: Religious.
• Armenians are Christians
• Turks are Muslim.
• Turkey wanted an all Muslim nation.
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Hanging of the Armenians
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Armenian Genocide
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Armenian Woman and Her Child
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Death Marches
• Death Marches of the Armenians. This would
again be repeated with the Jews.
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Death Marches of the Armenians
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Eternal Fire Burning in Armenia
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The Armenian Genocide (1915)
• Adolf Hitler: “After all, who remembers the
killings of the Armenians?”
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Holocaust Terms
• Concentration Camp, Any imprisonment camp
for holding "enemies of Hitler’s Germany.”
• The construction of concentration camps began
almost immediately after Hitler gained power in
Germany.
• There were several kinds: labor camps, prison
camps and death camps.
• Most of the concentration and death camps
were located in POLAND, the rest in Germany.
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Holocaust Terms
• Dachau: a concentration camp located in
Germany. First experiment with gas chambers
were undertaken.
• Auschwitz: The largest of Nazi Germany's
concentration camps. Located in Germanyoccupied southern Poland, it took its name from
the nearby town of Oświęcim (Auschwitz in
German).
• Belzec: Death Camp located in Poland. More than
600,000 Jews were gassed at Belzec between
1941 and 1943.
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Inside Dachau
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Concentration Camp-Auschwitz
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Work Will Set You Free
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Crematoriums
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Crematoriums
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Gas Chambers
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Zyklon B
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Crematoriums
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Crematoriums
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The Gas Chambers: Disguised as
Showers
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Mass Killings
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Trip to Concentration Camp
• Show pictures and short video clip from
Dachau
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MUST KNOW VOCABULARY
• HUTU: The majority ethnic group living in
Rwanda. The Hutu planned and killed hundreds
of thousands of Tutsi’s in 1994.
• TUTSI-The minority ethnic group living in
Rwanda.
• Ottoman Empire-Also known as the Turkish
Empire, the nation that destroyed 1.5 Million
Armenians.
• Final Solution-The system of exterminating Jews,
developed by Adolf Hitler.
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MUST KNOW VOCABULARY
• CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY- Crimes, such as
murder, rape, and torture, against a collective
group of people that can occur in times of war
and peace.
“All that is needed
for the triumph of evil
is that good men do
nothing!”
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POEM- “First They Came for the Jews”
• First They Came for the Jews
• First they came for the Jews
and I did not speak out
because I was not a Jew.
Then they came for the Communists
and I did not speak out
because I was not a Communist.
Then they came for the trade unionists
and I did not speak out
because I was not a trade unionist.
Then they came for me
and there was no one left
to speak out for me.
• Pastor Martin Niemöller
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First they came…
• Bystander
• Witness
• Testimonial
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Sonderkommando
• Sonderkommandos/Capos were Jewish work
units of Nazi death camp prisoners forced to
aid the killing process during The Holocaust—
Jews who worked inside the death camps.
Their tasks including transporting victims of
gassing to the ovens, cleaning the gas
chambers of human excrement and blood,
removal of gold from the teeth of the victims,
shaving the heads of those going to the gas
chambers.
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Holocaust Terms===SKIP
• Death Camps, or Killing Centers, a concentration camp
the distinct purpose of which was the extermination of
its inmates. Almost all of the German death camps
were located in Poland: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzek,
Chelmo, Madjanek, Sobibor, Treblinka.
• Death Marches, At the end of the war when it became
obvious that the German army was trapped between
the Soviets to the east and the advancing Allied troops
from the west, the Nazis, in an attempt to prevent the
liberation of camp inmates, forced them to march
westward. Thousands died in these marches.
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Holocaust Terms
• Deportation, the removal of people from their
areas of residency for purposes of
resettlement elsewhere. With regard to the
Jews of Europe, deportation meant removal
either to a ghetto or a concentration camp in
preparation for yet another removal to an
extermination center.
• Trains—Cattle cars
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Gestapo and the Nazi Commanders
• Gestapo, the German internal security police secret police. They terrorized the Jews.
• SS, originally Hitler's elite guard.—the SS was
in charge of the death camps.
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The SS Humiliating Jews
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Heinrich Himmler-2nd in Command
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Ghetto
• Ghetto, a Yiddish word referring to a walled
section of a city in which Jews were required
to live during the Middle Ages. The concept
was revived by the Nazi regime as part of the
Final Solution to the Jewish Question.
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Ghetto
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Ghetto
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Terms to Know
• Juden, The German word for Jew.
• Judenrat, Jewish community authority, appointed by
the Nazis for administration within the ghetto.
• Kristallnacht, "Night of broken glass," November 9,
1938, pogrom against German Jews, Jewish businesses
and synagogues orchestrated by the Gestapo in
retaliation for the assassination of a minor German
embassy official in Paris by a 17 year-old Jewish youth
named Herchel Grynzspan. 7,500 businesses and 101
synagogues were destroyed, almost 100 Jews were
killed and several thousand were arrested and sent to
concentration camps. The beginning of the Holocaust.
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Kristallnacht
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Terms to Know
• Rabbi: Leader of a Jewish congregation, similar to
the role of a priest or minister. (synagogue)
• Star of David: A six-pointed star which is a symbol
of Judaism. During the Holocaust, Jews
throughout Europe were required to wear Stars
of David on their sleeves or fronts and backs of
their shirts.
• Synagogue—Jewish house of worship—a Jewish
Church.
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Terms to Know
• Aryan: A term for peoples speaking the language
of Europe and India. In Nazi racial theory, a
person of pure German "blood." The term "nonAryan" was used to designate Jews, part-Jews
and others of supposedly inferior racial stock.
• “Aryan” people include: Greeks, Slavs, Romans,
Armenians, Germans, Celts, Batls, Iranians,
Indians, and other peoples of European race.
• Hitler took this idea of the perfect “Aryan” race
and made it exclusive to Blond Hair, Blue Eyes
German people.
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Terms to Know
• Antisemitism: Opposition to and discrimination
against Jews.
• Stereotype: Biased generalizations about a group
based on hearsay, opinions, and distorted,
preconceived ideas.
• Discrimination: : racial and religious intolerance.
• Dehumanization: The Nazi policy of denying Jews
basic civil rights such as practicing religion ,
education, and adequate housing.
• (First they take away your freedom, then your
shelter, your home, then your family, then your
name, and finally, your life).
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Terms to Know
• Prejudice- an unfavorable opinion or feeling
formed beforehand or without knowledge,
thought, or reason.
• Intolerance-lack of toleration; unwillingness or
refusal to tolerate or respect contrary opinions or
beliefs, persons of different races or backgrounds,
etc.
• Bigotry- stubborn and complete intolerance of
any creed, belief, or opinion that differs from
one's own.
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Ethnocentricity
• Ethnocentricity- the belief in the inherent
superiority of one's own ethnic group or
culture.
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More Examples of Enthnocentrism
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Ethnocrentricity
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We Should Be Careful
• These same flags and ethnocentric beliefs are also
used by the wrong groups.
The KKK in the US
Nazis in Russia
Nazis in America
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Diversity-The only way to be Free
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Diversity and Testimonials
• Testimonials- A statement in support of a particular truth, fact, or
claim.
• In order for us to avoid another Genocide, We must all, as Members
of the Human Race,:
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•
•
•
•
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Educate ourselves
Tolerate people’s differences
Stop Sterotyping
Celebrate each other’s differences
Educate ourselves about other cultures, religions, and traditions.
Be careful with our words and actions
And to stand up and speak when we see racism, hatred, or
intolerance.
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Homework
• On DQ CARDS re-write the key points of the
lecture.
• Highlight all the major parts.
• Make it colorful and easy to study off of.
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Propaganda
• Propaganda: False or partly false information
used by a government or political party
intended to sway/change the opinions of the
population.
• Propaganda uses methods of persuasion to
exaggerate and convince people that what
they are saying is the absolute truth.
• BEWARE…BEWARE…BEWARE…BEWARE
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Propaganda Techniques
• Attack your opponent, as opposed to attacking their arguments.
• Appeal to Fear-Make people afraid. Ex. The world will end if we don’t end
Global Warming. If we don’t attack Iraq, they will attack us.
• Bandwagon-Join in and do it because everyone is doing it. Ex. Vote for
Obama…Why? Because everyone is voting for him it’s cool….
• Lies
• Demonizing the Enemy-Making them non-human
• Stereotyping or name calling
• Scapegoating-Blame it on whatever or whoever you are attacking.
• USE Patriotism or Religion to convince someone (Flags, Army, Weapons).
• Emotional Appeal
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Appeal to Emotions/Patriotism
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Propaganda (Examples)
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“LONG LIVE GERMANY”
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“HITLER IS BUILDING. HELP HIM! BUY
GERMAN GOODS!”
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AGAINST THE JEWS
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US PROPAGANDA POSTERS
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American Propaganda Posters (War)
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Themes
• Dehumanization: Taking away Jews natural rights.
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Following the 6 steps of dehumanization.
Gott is Tot: God is Dead in German
“Poetry is not a luxury” – Audre Lorde. Giving a name to
the nameless. Telling other people’s story. A form of
expression.
Silence: Wiesel emphasizes the silence that allowed the
concentration camps; the silence of God to allow such
atrocities to occur.
• Denial: You’ll come across sections in the novel where
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people are denying what’s happening to them. Unaccepting of
the truth.
Family Love: The relationship between father and son.
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