CAPITAL FOR INVESTING IN COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM

Report
CAPITAL FOR INVESTING
IN COMMUNITY BASED
TOURISM
BY JOSEPH M. RUHIU,
PROGRAMME MANAGER
COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT
FACILITY
22ND OCTOBER 2007
COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM
(CBT) EVOLUTION
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INITIATED IN EARLY 1970S TO RAISE LIVING STANDARDS FOR RURAL POOR
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STRATEGY FOR ENHANCED BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION THROUGH RESPONSIBLE
TOURISM AND INCOME GENERATION FOR RURAL POOR
PRODUCT OF COMMUNITY BASED NATURAL RESOUIRCES MANAGEMENT (CBNRM)
BEST EXAMPLES OF CBRNM, ARE CAMPFIRE IN ZIMBABWE AND KENYAN EXAMPLES
ARE, KIMANA, IL NWESI, MWALUGANJE, SHOMPOLE, KOIJA,ESELENKI AND OL
GABOLI
INITIALLY WERE TO ADDRESS REVENUE SHARING, LATER COMMERCIAL
GAZETTED AREAS FAILURE TO ADDRESS LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY AND ADDRESS
GROWING POVERTY FOR RURAL POOR LIVING IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO WILDLIFE
FASTEST GROWING COMPONENT OF TOURISM SECTOR, WITH POTENTIAL TO SPUR
ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RURAL AREAS AND GREATLY CONTRIBUTE TO VISION 2030
COMMUNITY ADAPTING BUSINESS CULTURE WITH PRIVATE – COMMUNITY
PARTNERSHIPS BEING FORGED
GROWTH NEEDS PLANNING, RESOURCES ALLOCATION, IMPROVED MANAGEMENT
STYLES, MARKETING, GUIDELINES DEVELOPMENT, ASSESSMENT TO LOCAL
ECONOMY, TOWARDS BIODIVERSITY AND BUILD M & E
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FUNDING COMMUNITY
BASED TOURISM
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GOVERNMENT SUPPORT TO TOURISM LIMITED – KTB RECEIVES KSHS. 500M OPPOSED TO PLANNED
KSHS. 1 BILLION – DISPITE TOURISM VALUE
GOVERNMENT PROVIDES ENABLING ENVIRONMENT – POLICY FORMULATION, PROGRAMMES
COORDINATION, SECURITY COORDINATION, INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT, MARKETING &
PLANNING
CBT ALMOST 100% DONOR DEPNDENT – TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND ESTABLISHMENT OF
PROTECTED AREAS OWES IT TO INTERNATIONAL FUNDING
MAIN DONORS – WORLD BANK, EU, USAID, UNDP – KIMANA ESTABLISHED THROUGH COBRA A
CONSORTIUM OF USAID, WORLD BANK AMONG OTHERS
EU COMMITTED EURO 25 MILLION OVER LAST TEN YEARS TOWARDS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT –
BETWEEN 2000 – 2006, KSH.. 200MILLION FROM EU TO CDTF ESTABLSIHED 16 COMMUNITY BASED
CONSERVATION AREAS, IN 2006 A FURTHER KSHS. 430MILLION FROM EU TO CDTF TOWARDS
COMMUNITY BASED INIITIATIVES
IN 2002 EU GAVE TTF KSHS. 1 BILLION TOWARDS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT WITH MAJOR
MILESTONE BEING MARKETING KENYA THOUGH KTB AND CREATION OF REGIONAL NETWORKS
USAID HAS COMMITTED SOME $715,809 TO SUPPORT COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM THROUGH CORE
OF WHICH $434,194 WAS DISBURSED IN 2005. USAID THROUGH LEWA
PROVIDED $400,000 TO SET UP SERA CONSERVANCY
KEY COMMUNITY CONSERVATION AREAS ESTABLSIHED THROUGH eu AND USAID INCLUDE –
SHOMPOLE, KOIYAKI, GUIDING SCHOOL, LUMO, KALAMA, KIJABE,KOIJA, SERA, KASIGAU AMONG
OTHERS
DONOR FUNDS FORM THE LARGEST CONTRIBUTION FOR CBT AS GOVERNMENT FINANCES ARE
INADEQUATE EVEN WHEN FACTORED IN GOVERNMENT BUDGETS
IS DONOR FUNDING
WORKING?
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SINCE RECOGNITON AND ACCPETANCE IN THE 1970S CBT GROWN IN NUMBERS, PRODUCT
IMPROVED IN TIME
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FASTEST GROWING SECTORS WITH POTENTIAL OF SPURING RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND
CONTRIBUTE TO VISION 2030
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100 ESTABLISHMENTS IN EXISTENCE TODAY COMPARED TO 0NE OR TWO IN EARLY 1970S
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GROWN INTO COMPETTIVE BUSINESS VENTURES WITH PRIVATE –COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS
BUILD
CASE 1: OLGABOLI WOMEN BANDAS
PRE BCP
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Serious environmental degradation; High poverty and illiteracy level;Non-economic activities;Male dominance;Unexploited natural resource;
Exploitation by tour operators; Low leadership skills and Low bargaining power
WITH BCP
First Maasai women biodiversity conservation project where rural illiterate women have negotiated for land access
rights and are engaged in eco-tourism development aimed at introducing a new and more productive benefit
avenue. Objective: reverse situation pre BCP: Sustainably utilize biodiversity for economic gains; Diversify
sources and types of income;Reverse male dominance in enterprises; Reverse male dominance in enterprises;
Empower women in matters of conservation; Reverse the deteriorating range condition; Reduce poverty through
tourism; Provide an alternative source of income – Fall back position, Provide conducive environment for skills
building – Literacy
POSITIVE IMPACTS:
Positive impacts:
Income increased from Kshs. 400,000 between 2005 and Kshs. 2million in 2007; BCP support attracted financial
support for a sixth banda from USAID; Illiteracy level brought down through literacy classes; 10 people employed in
the in the enterprise, mostly young men and girls; Cattle rustling reduced through radio network and vehicle
(secondary impacts); Land rehabilitated; Partnerships build – community-private sector Rift Valley Adventures,

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