Helping Students to Become More Effective Writers

Report
Language Teaching Approaches and Methods
Dr. Desmond Thomas,
International Academy,
University of Essex
Why do people learn English?
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Communication with native speakers
Work
Career prospects
Academic study
Travel
Access to information
Access to literature and culture
Prestige?
What do they need to learn? (1)
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Pronunciation of individual sounds
Word and sentence stress
Intonation
Grammar
Vocabulary
Language functions
What do they need to learn? (2)
• Appropriacy in discourse
• Structure of discourse
• Language varieties
And they need to develop: reading,
listening, speaking, writing skills
How languages are learned: theories
• Behaviourism. "Verbal behaviour" by
B.Skinner (1957)
• Cognitivism (Innatism) . "Review of Verbal
Behaviour" (1959) and "Syntactic Structures"
(1957) by N.Chomsky.
• Interactionism (Socio-constructivism) See
works by Piaget and Vygotsky.
Which approaches lead to success?
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The structural approach?
The notional-functional approach?
The communicative approach?
The lexical approach?
The task-based approach?
An eclectic approach?
Approaches leading to methods
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Grammar-translation (R&R p.3)
The direct method (p.9)
Situational language teaching (p.31)
The audiolingual method (p.44)
Communicative language teaching
(p.64) and post-CLT
• Alternative methods: TPR, CLL, Silent
Way, Suggestopedia, Natural Approach
Characteristics of CLT
• Based on the idea of 4 types of
communicative competence
(grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse,
strategic) and therefore ...
• Focus on function rather than form
• Focus on linguistic appropriacy
• Focus on actual language use
Implications for the CLT classroom
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Communicative speaking activities
Communicative writing activities
Use of ‘authentic materials’
Emphasis on S-S interaction and on
learner autonomy
• Attitude to error-making changes
• Role of the teacher changes
Further reading
• Lightbown, P. & Spada,N. 1999, How
Languages are Learned, OUP.
• Littlewood, W. 1981, Communicative
Language Teaching, CUP
• Richards, J. & Rodgers, T. 1986, Approaches
and Methods in Language Teaching, CUP

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