Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England?

Report
World History | Chapter 25
Renaissance
Reformation
Age of Exploration
Scientific Revolution
Enlightenment
The Industrial Revolution starts in England
and soon spreads to other countries.

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
Britain has natural resources — coal, iron,
rivers, harbors
Expanding economy in Britain encourages
investment
Britain has all needed factors of
production — land, labor, capital
Geography
1. What one
generalization
can be made
about virtually
all of the
major
industrial
areas in Great
Britain in
1850?
Geography
2. Which is
the only
industrial area
that is not in a
coal
producing
region?
Geography
3. What was
the major
industrial
activity
around
Durham in
north
England?
Charles
Dickens
Industrial Revolution — greatly
increases output of machine-made goods
 Enclosures — large farm fields
enclosed by fences or hedges

 Factories pay more than farms
 Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once
owned by village farmers
▪ Crop rotation — switching crops each year to
avoid depleting the soil
 What were
four
factors that
contributed to
industrialization
in Britain?

1. Large population of
workers

2. Extensive Natural
Resources

3. Expanding Economy

4. Political Stability





GETS THE JUMP ON COMPETITION +
FORCED TO UNDERGO “TRIAL AND
ERROR” ON MACHINES –
SLOWLY BUILDS FROM ‘BOTTOM UP’ +
ENCOUNTERS ‘MASSIVE SOCIAL
PROBLEMS” CONTINENT DOESN’T –
CONTROLS “INDUSTRIAL ‘PSYCHIC’
CLIMATE ” +
 Need
for cheap,
convenient
power spurs
development of
steam engine
 first steamboat
 first railroad line

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
Sickness widespread; epidemics, like cholera,
sweep urban slums
Life span in one large city is only 17 years
Wealthy merchants, factory owners live in
luxurious suburban homes
Rapidly growing cities lack sanitary codes,
building codes
Cities also without adequate housing,
education, police protection
Average working day 14
hours for 6 days a
week, year round
 Dirty, poorly lit
factories injure workers
 Many coal miners
killed by coal dust
 Child labor

Benefits
Problems
U.S. has natural
and labor,
resources needed
to industrialize
non-industrialized
countries fall
further behind
European nations,
U.S., Japan exploit
colonies for
resources
rise of global
inequality
Europe and U.S.
gain economic
power
African and Asian
economies lag,
based on
agriculture, crafts

Laissez faire — Economic idea of
government NOT interfering or regulating
businesses

Adam Smith — laissez faire defender of free
markets, author of The Wealth of Nations

Believed in “natural laws of economics”: an
invisible hand would guide the economy
Adam
Smith
Economic liberty
guarantees
economic
progress
Smith’s 3
economic
natural laws —
1) self-interest
2)competition
3) supply and
demand
Capitalism:
system of privately
owned businesses
seeking profits
Socialism: factors of
production owned by,
operated for the
people
UTILITARIANISM
•POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY in late 1700’S
by JEREMY BENTHAM
•GOVERNMENT SHOULD HAVE POLICIES
THAT PROMOTE GREATEST GOOD FOR
GREATEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE
•JS MILL FURTHERED UTILITARIANISM
•UNREGULATED CAPITALISM IS WRONG
•Womens’ rights; agric. co-ops; equal
division of profits; legal, prison, educational
Karl Marx
Communist
Manifesto 1848
• believe society is
divided into warring
classes
• Capitalism helps
“haves” (employers)
• Hurts “have-nots,”
(workers)
•BOURGEOISIE =
MIDDLE CLASS
•PROLETARIAT =
WORKERS
KARL MARX
•Predicted
workers would
overthrow the
capitalists in a
revolution
•Only
proletariat
would exist
and rule
•Eventually the
State will
wither away

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“Workers of the world unite!
You have nothing to lose but
your chains!”
“From each according to his
ability, to each according to
his needs”
The Communist Manifesto
did NOT influence the
Revolutions of 1848
Karl Marx
Communism —
society where
people own, share
the means of
production
Marx’s ideas later
take root in Russia,
China, Cuba
Marx’s version of
communism was
NOT a
dictatorship. Has
never really been
tried.
Unions
Children
• (think back to guilds) goals were
higher wages, shorter hours,
improved conditions
• U.S. ends child labor, sets
maximum hours in 1904
Slavery
• In 1833, reformers help end
slavery in British empire
Women
• Women pursue economic and
social rights as early as 1848
UNIONS
•8-HOUR WORK
DAY
•1 ½ PAY FOR
OVER 40
HOURS
•VACATIONS
•HEALTH
BENEFITS
•PENSIONS
•SAFER
CONDITIONS
•NO CHILD
LABOR


COLLECTIVE
BARGAINING:
UNIONS REPRESENTED
ALL WORKERS ALL AT
ONCE (PAY, WORKING
CONDITIONS)
STRIKES: IF DEMANDS
NOT MET, WORKERS
WOULDN’T WORK
UNIONS
REFORMS
HARD FOUGHT
TO GET
OCCURRED
OVER LONG
TIME PERIOD
ENTERED INTO
LAWS WHICH
HELPED
SOCIETY


UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE:
RIGHT TO VOTE FOR ALL
PEOPLE (ORIGINALLY
ONLY LAND-OWNING
MEN)
CHARTIST MOVEMENT:
GIVE WORKERS RIGHT TO
VOTE
UNIONS
JANE
ADDAMS
AND HULL
HOUSE

MOTHER
JONES


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AS TIME PASSED OTHER
REFORMS OCCURRED
HELPED ON BY UNION
ACTIVITY:
END OF SLAVERY
WOMEN’S RIGHTS
PUBLIC EDUCATION
PRISON REFORM

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