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Report
Vikas Nath
Founding President
The Digital Governance Initiative
www.DigitalGovernance.org
Vice-President, Commonwealth Centre for
Electronic Governance, India
G2C E-Government:
Generic Models and
International Trends
Digital Development Initiative
Uzbekistan
28 May 2004
Who is the Government for Citizens ?
Who are the Citizens for Government ?
CITIZENS
GOVERNMENT
Central
Government
Courts
Women
Farmers
Taxpayer
Home
Ministry
Senior
Citizens
State
Government
Municipality
Police
Customs
Media
Rural
Population
UnEmployed
Entrepreneur
G2C E-Government is when…
Information Technology is used to:

Facilitate CITIZENS interaction with the GOVERNMENT
(local / regional / central)

Enhance CITIZENS access to GOVERNMENT / public
information

Increase participation of CITIZENS in the
GOVERNMENT processes
Vision Progression
Indicative G2C Models Progression……
Integration and Transformation
• One-stop Citizen Portal Model
Transaction Phase
Interactivity Phase
• Selective Service Model
• Query-Response Model
Web Presence Phase
• Broadcasting Model
Time and Cost
Broadcasting Model
Web Presence Phase
General
Public
Information
CITIZENS
Wider Public
Domain
• Government structure and ministries,
and key officials information
• Laws, legislations, draft resolutions and
bills under discussion
• Government budget, plans and
expenditures
• Government reports, policy papers,
speeches and press releases
• Contact addresses, working hours of
government offices
Examples
Mongolia: Open Government
http://open-government.mn
Senegal: Government Online
http://www.gouv.sn/
Tanzania: Parliament Online
http://www.parliament.go.tz/
Namibia: Parliamentary Website
http://www.parliament.gov.na
Uzbekistan: Portal of the State of Authority
http://www.gov.uz
Yemen: Government Online http://www.yemen.gov.ye
MONGOLIA
TANZANIA
YEMEN
UZBEKISTAN
ESTONIA
Key Requirements
• Starting point model: Political will and E-champions (top-down guidance)
• Information sharing culture (with Government as Role Model)
• Digitization of government information
• IT Training of government bureaucrats and technocrats
• Creation of IT unit / IT position within government offices
• Modifying information flow within government offices to ensure that IT units are
provided with updated information to be put on the website
Interactivity Phase
Query- Response Model
Presents comprehensive, updated information frequently demanded /
queried by specific users
Information
A
Users A
Information
B
Users B
Information
C
Users C
• Information on permits and licenses
required, clearances needed for
setting up industry, schools, SMEs.
• Downloadable forms and
applications- driving license, taxes,
passports, loans and subsidies
• Government jobs information
• Corruption information
• Flood and storm warnings
Examples
South Africa: Government Online
http://www.gov.za/
Ukraine: Government Portal
http://www.kmu.gov.ua
Lebanon: Lebanese Government Portal for Information and Forms
http://www.informs.gov.lb/EN/Main/index.asp
Azerbaijan (Ministry of Justice): Electronic Database of Civil Status
Acts
Malaysia: E-Flood Information
http://jps.selangor.gov.my
Cameroon: Ministry of Finance and Budget
http://www.impots.gov.cm/
SOUTH AFRICA
UKRAINE
UKRAINE
LEBANON
INDIA
Key Requirements
• Interpreting citizens information demand by respective government offices. Eg: health
and education ministry, foreign ministry, trade ministry, census bureau
• Improving existing online information and providing new information based on feedback
• Creation of database-driven electronic repositories
• Auditing of information provided online for its authenticity and validity
• Investing in IT hardware and software, as many of these websites may be database
driven (eg: using Oracle) and may require dedicated web-servers
• Nodal agency to provide IT support to government offices
Transaction Phase
Selective-Service Model
Online form processing, individual-identity/ authentication-based
transactions (initiated by thematic government offices)
Citizen
A
Service X
Govt. Office X
Citizen
B
Service Y
Govt. Office Y
Citizen
C
• Applying for selected government
products. Eg: driving license
(Transport Ministry), Passport (Home
Ministry), Land registration certificates
(Rural Development Ministry)
• Payment for goverment services. Eg:
taxes, license fees, custom duties
• Online voting
• Online purchase of government
reports
• Filing of grievance and queries
Examples
Armenia: E-Visa (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
http://www.armeniaforeignministry.com/
UK: Job Centre Plus (Department for Work and Pensions)
http://www.jobcentreplus.gov.uk/cms.asp?Page=/Home
Philippines: Online Marriage, Birth Certificates (City of Manila)
http://www.cityofmanila.com.ph/service.htm
India: Payment of Excise / Stamp Duty (Department of Registration and
Stamps, Maharashtra)
http://www.mahaigr.org/
ARMENIA
UNITED
KINGDOM
PHILIPPINES
Bhoomi Model,
Land Registration,
INDIA
Key Requirements
• Ensuring secure collection, transmission and storage of information- secure
databases and servers
• Taking steps towards trust-building to assure citizens about privacy, robustness
and validity of transactions made online
• Redesign of MIS within government offices to amalgamate transactions carried
online with offline transactions
• Legislative and regulatory framework (Electronic Documents Act, Digital
Signatures, Records Management)
Integration and Transformation
One-Stop Citizen Portal Model
Unifying portal that offers full case handling, decision-making and
delivery for diverse services
Service X
Service X
Govt. Office X
Service X
Govt. Office X
Service X
Govt. Office X
ONE – STOP PORTAL
Govt. Office X
Citizen
A
Citizen
B
Citizen
C
• Citizen-centred model as an
entry point to all interactions
with the government
• Avenues for making online
transactions, making payments
for range of government
services
Examples
Singapore: eCitizen
http://www.ecitizen.gov.sg/
USA: First Gov http://www.firstgov.gov/
Malta: Government Information and Services Online
http://www.gov.mt/index.asp?l=2
UK: DirectGov http://www.direct.gov.uk/Homepage/fs/en (Replaces UK
Online)
Egypt: Government Services Portal http://www.egypt.gov.eg/
India: Andhra Pradesh State Government Portal
http://www.esevaonline.com/
SINGAPORE
USA
EGYPT
Andhra
Pradesh, INDIA
Key Requirements
Adoption of ICT in operations of all arms and offices of the Governmentthe parliament, judiciary, state governments, municipalities
National level infrastructure and connectivity
Information security and crime prevention acts
Developing ICT human capital within the country
Focus on innovative models and technologies (Wireless applications, SMS,
Mobile phones) suitable for the country in delivering Egovernment services
G2C E-Government as a Tool for Human Development
e-Government leads to increase in Information Access & Flows
Information Access
Opportunities / Avenues available to
individuals to seek information from different
sources. For instance: other individuals,
institutions, and public domains & databases.
Information Flow
Supply / Availability of information within a
society. Information flows may be 'restricted'
in some societies and 'open' in others.
Schematic Representation of
Enhanced Information Access and Flow
Pre e-Government Society
Post e-Government Society
citizens
If e-Government is to provide CLEAR benefits to the unreached and to the
disadvantaged communities, then there is a need to focus on the
"Geometry of Information Flows"
End Note:
Guidelines for Uzbekistan for developing G2C EGovernment Projects
e-Government Priorities
• Who are the Target groups we want to reach out to ?
• What are the key government information needs of the Target Group ?
• What is the weakest link in the chain of information flows: from source of
Information to the Target Communities?
• Can E-government deliver new products and services that cannot be
delivered by the conventional means ?
• Are Government and Citizen ready for full-scale e-Government?
Limits of e-Government
End Note:
Strategy for Uzbekistan for developing G2C E-Government
• Conceive a citizen-centred e-Government approach
• Develop geographically rooted e-Government models
• Invest in e-Government architecture which is affordable to both
government and citizens
• Intermediary Creation: Ensure participation in governance sphere is
smooth, accessible to all and not time-consuming
For more information:
Vikas Nath
Founder, The Digital Governance Initiative
Vice-President, Commonwealth Centre for Electronic
Governance, India
http://www.DigitalGovernance.org
A network of over 2800 individuals with National Networks in India, Ghana,
Nigeria and Nepal.
Vikas @ DigitalGovernance.org
Vikas @ ElectronicGovIndia.net

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