Unit 9 - CADENCES

Report
Mr. Jackson
AP Music Theory
UNIT 9 - CADENCES
WHAT IS A CADENCE?
 A cadence is the harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic conclusion to a phrase. It also
helps to establish the tonal center. It is the proof we need to confidently determine
what key we are in.
Think of cadences as musical punctuation. Let’s construct some sentences:
 Sentence 1: Construct a sentence that is thorough and ends with a predictable,
complete thought.
 Sentence 2: Construct a sentence that you think will end predictable, but leaves
you wondering…
 Sentence 3: Construct a sentence that is incomplete and leaves you hanging…
HISTORY OF CADENCES
 Composers have always had an intuitive sense of how music “ends” or concludes.
 Early cadences were simple, quaint, and to some – unfulfilling.
Prior to the baroque period and the establishment of functional harmony, cadences
were considered simply a manipulation of melodic lines that converged or diverged to a
point of rest, usually the final (the first degree of a mode). Here are some early types of
cadences:
 The baroque period brought about the familiar cadence types:
 The standard cadences (authentic, half, plagal, and deceptive) continued with little
change from the baroque period throughout the classical period.
CADENCES FOR AP EXAM
Authentic Cadence – The most common phrase-ending chord progression uses the
dominant chord (V) to set up the tension and the tonic (I or i) for the release.
 Perfect Authentic (PAC) – Requires both dominant and tonic chords to be in
ROOT POSITION. Also, the SOPRANO VOICE must have tonic!
 Imperfect Authentic (IAC) – Weaker authentic (V – I) cadence that has either
chord INVERTED, or has a chord member other than the root in the soprano of the
tonic chord. Could also contain the viio or viio6 to tonic.
 Plagal Cadence (PC) – Slightly weaker progression using subdominant to tonic
(IV to I) Nicknamed the “Amen Cadence,” and is traditionally used when singing “Amen”
at the end of hymns.
 Deceptive Cadence (DC) – An ending progression where the dominant chord is
unexpectedly resolved to the submediant instead of the tonic. (V to vi)
All other chord tones resolve correct, except the bass.
 Half Cadence (HC) – Ends on the dominant (V). It’s unresolved tension is used in the
middle of a melody, an inconclusive cadence that typically ends on a root position V.
This cadence acts like a “comma” in a sentence and must be followed by another
phrase that completes the musical thought.
 Phrygian Half Cadence (PHC) – A specific kind of half cadence that occurs in
harmonic minor. (iv6 to V) The descending bass line (Leto Sol) is approached from
above by a half step and is characteristic of the Phrygian mode with its half step.
HALF CADENCE (HC)
PHRYGIAN HALF CADENCE (PHC)
EXAMPLE OF HALF CADENCES
AUTHENTIC CADENCES
The IAC example could also include inversions.
EXAMPLES OF AUTHENTIC CADENCES
DECEPTIVE CADENCE (DC)
EXAMPLE OF DECEPTIVE CADENCE
PLAGAL CADENCE (PC)
EXAMPLE OF PLAGAL CADENCE
CADENCE SUMMARY
Cadence
Progression
Half (HC)
ANY
V, V7
Phrygian Half (PHC)
iv6
V, V7
Perfect Authentic (PAC)
V7
V,
SOP
I
TONIC IN
Imperfect Authentic (IAC)
viio6, vii7 ,V6, V
I
Deceptive Cadence (DC)
V, v
VI, vi
Plagal Cadence (PC)
IV, iv
I, i

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