Intercultural CommunicationAnnette

T2013 46h
Annette Finnsdottir
• Marketing/Markedsføring
• Private/public service
• Management of organizations/Organisationsledelse
Internationalization / Multicultural
• Peer-to-peer
The communications model of Schramm (1955) applied to the
Internet/ Schramm’s kommunikationsmodel (1955)
anvendt på internet kommunikation
“Now, more than ever, you need to think globally. Our
localization and internationalization services help you take
your service or product and present it properly to any
audience on the international stage. We go way beyond
translation, times, dates and colours. Software, videos,
slogans, marketing copy, e-commerce websites and apps
all need insightful adaptation in order to appeal to
particular languages, cultures and local expectations. This
is what we offer.”
"Nu, mere end nogensinde, er du nødt til at tænke globalt.
Vores lokalisering og internationalisering hjælper dig med
at præsentere din service eller produkt ordentligt til ethvert
publikum på den internationale scene. Vi går langt ud over
oversættelse, tider, datoer og farver. Software, videoer,
slogans, marketing kopi, e-handel hjemmesider og apps har
alle brug for indsigtsfuld tilpasning med henblik på at
appellere til bestemte sprog, kulturer og lokale
forventninger. Det er, hvad vi tilbyder."
Communication is much more than the ”words”
themselves …
It’s also behavior…
It’s also …
• the concepts, the stories, the services, the experiences,
the products, the plans, the strategies …
So how to avoid the noise
- the misperceptions?
> How to interpret the basis of intercultural
communication? > How to understand culture?
• Edward T. Hall (1914-2009)
• Geert Hofstede (1928-)
• Hans Gullestrup
• High Context (HC) communication
most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in
the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message. Twins who have
grown up together can and do communicate more economically (HC) than
two lawyers in a courtroom during a trial (LC
• Low context (LC) communication
• is just the opposite; i.e., the mass of the information is vested in the
explicit code.
Eward T. Hall
American anthropologist and cross-cultural
Famous for the concept of Proxemics, a description of how people behave and
react in different types of culturally defined personal space
High Context
(including much of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and
South America)
relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative
Low Context
(including North America and much of Western Europe)
logical, linear, individualistic, and action-oriented.
Eward T. Hall
Power distance (PDI)
Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV)
Masculinity vs. feminity (MAS)
Uncertainty avoidance (UAI)
Long-term vs. short-term orientation (LTO)
Geert Hofstede
“However, the intercultural actor, or manager, will have to predict
which of the actual cultural categories and layers in the relevant
hierarchy he considers to be the potentially relevant culture - or cultures
- and which cultures he might try to understand according to this
Each of these potential and/or relevant cultures then has to be analyzed
as an empirical unit in accordance with the analytical, theoretical
cultural frame model or other models.
As mentioned before, a particular culture might be described and
understood at a given time by means of two cultural dimensions, the
horizontal and the vertical.”
Hans Gullestrup (2002)
” Den interkulturelle aktør eller leder må forudsige, hvilke af de
faktiske kulturelle kategorier og lag i det relevante hierarki han anser
for at være den potentielt relevante kultur - eller kulturer - og hvilke
kulturer han må prøve at forstå ifølge denne vurdering.
Hver af disse potentielle og/eller relevante kulturer skal så analyseres
som en empirisk enhed i overensstemmelse med den analytiske og
teoretiske kulturelle rammemodel eller andre modeller.
Som nævnt, kan en bestemt kultur beskrives og forstås ved en given
tid ved hjælp af to kulturelle dimensioner, den horisontale og den
Hans Gullestrup (2002)
Hans Gullestrup (2002)
Hans Gullestrup (2002)
Hans Gullestrup (2002)
Hans Gullestrup (2006)
Hans Gullestrup (2006)
Hans Gullestrup (2006)
In other words: Check the cultures involved
• External qualities such as age, wealth, education or gender.
• Little room for others to gain status through actions and achievements.
• Achieved-status is earned. Internal qualities are valued more than external
• Status is achieved through accomplishments such as hard work and
contributions to a company or community.
• In such cultures status is malleable, in that it can be lost as quickly as it is
gained and status can shift to other individuals
The anthropologist,
Ralph Linton (1893-1953)
Check also channels
• What cultural theoretical tradition is used for
the analysis?
• Do you agree with the conclusions?
• What are the concepts in use for this
Exercise I
You are creating a service concept targeted
immigrants of Arabic background or
immigrants from China, living in Denmark.
What should you be ware of in terms of
communication and user involvement?
Exercise 2
Working in teams
1. Break Assumptions
Everyone makes or has assumptions about others. Assumptions are beliefs rather than objective truth
and are usually influenced by a number of subjective factors.
For intercultural communication to truly work, people need to assess their assumptions and ask
themselves why they hold those ideas or beliefs. By doing so and even openly examining them with
others, the initial barrier to intercultural communication is overcome.
2. Empathise
In order to come to appreciate and understand people from different cultures, empathy is vital.
Through putting yourself in someone else's shoes you come to see or appreciate their point of view.
3. Involve
Involving others in tasks or decision making empowers and builds strong relationships.
Using intercultural diversity is in essence a more creative approach to problem solving
as it incorporates different points of view.
4. Shun Insensitive Behaviour
People can and do behave in culturally insensitive ways. By attacking someone's person,
you attack their culture and therefore their dignity. This can only be divisive.
Intercultural communication is based upon people thinking through words and actions to
ensure they do not act inappropriately. When insensitive behaviour is witnessed it is the
responsibility of all to shun it and ensure it remains unacceptable.
5. Discourage Herd Mentality
Herd mentality refers to a closed and one dimensional approach. Such a way of thinking
curbs creativity, innovation and advancement as people are restricted in how to think,
approach and engage with people or challenges. Intercultural communication can only
flourish and therefore contribute if people are encouraged to think as individuals, bring
their cultural influences to the table and share ideas that may be outside the box.
6. Be Wise
Wisdom is not called wisdom for nothing. People need to be aware how to interact with
people with respect and knowledge. Intercultural communication is essentially founded
upon wisdom, i.e. showing maturity of thought and action in dealing with people.
Through thinking things out and have background knowledge to intercultural differences
much of the communication problems witnessed within business could be avoided.
Cultural differences
Confronting a problem
Sense of self
Weekend activities
How to express anger
Queue when waiting
Status of leader

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