I. Isolationism to Internationalism a. Following Independence for 150 years, the US was primarily concerned with domestic affairs – events at home. Foreign Affairs – relationships with other nations – were not the focus. American foreign relations were largely shaped by the policy of isolationism – a purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world. World War II convinced the United States that they could not live in isolation. The well-being of one country is affected by others. War and other political upheavals abroad have an impact on the US and the daily lives of Americans. Economic conditions in other countries can have a direct impact on the US. I. Foreign Policy – many different policies on many different topics. It is made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries – diplomatic, military, commercial, etc. It includes everything that that nation’s government says and does in world affairs. a. Involves treaties and alliances, international trade, defense budget, foreign economic and military aid, the UN, nuclear weapons testing, and disarmament negotiations b.The President bears the majority of the responsibility for both making and conducting foreign policy The State Department a. The Secretary of State – ranks first among the members of the President’s Cabinet. b. The Foreign Service – 6,000 men and women represent the US abroad as members of the Foreign Service. Every nation has the right to legation – the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives a. Ambassadors – official representatives of the US appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy. The United States is represented by an ambassador stationed at the capital of each state the US recognizes. b. Passports – certificate issued by the government to its citizens who travel or live abroad. c. Diplomatic Immunity – not subject to the laws of the state which they are accredited. They cannot be sued, arrested, or taxed. The Defense Department – created to unify the nation’s armed forces a. The President is the commander in chief and Congress has broad military powers (declare war) b. The Secretary of Defense – heads the Defense Department. Two major responsibilities – President’s chief aide and advisor in making and carrying out defense policy and act as the operating head of the Defense Department. c. Joint Chiefs of Staff serve as the principal military advisors to the Secretary of Defense Military Departments a. Three military departments – the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force The DNI a. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence is headed by the Director of National Intelligence. It was created because of the government’s intelligence agencies pre-9/11 failure to work together. I. Department of Homeland Security a. The Department of Homeland Security is charged with protecting the United States from terrorism – the use of violence to intimidate a government or society. b. 5 specific areas – border and transportation security; infrastructure protection; emergency preparedness and response; chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear defense; and informational analysis (intelligence) What makes their job difficult? Bioterrorism – threat of the use of biological agents such as smallpox or anthrax. Facts to consider – 600,000 bridges, 170,000 water systems, 2,000 power plants (104 of them nuclear) in the United States. There are also 220,000 miles of Railroad, 190,000 miles of gas pipelines, 25,000 miles of waterways, and 1,000 harbor channels. Things that are critical – food supply, healthcare system, communication They cannot protect everything completely from Terrorism. Terrorism thrives on that unpredictability and uses fear as it weapon. NASA a. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was created by Congress in 1958 to handle the nation’s space programs. NASA’s work ranges from basic research to explorations of outer space. The Selective Service System a. Throughout most of US history, service in the armed forces has been based on voluntary enlistment. From 1940 to 1973, the draft – compulsory military service – was the major source of military manpower. The President’s power to order men into the armed forces ended on June 30, 1973. In order to reactivate the draft, Congress would have to renew that presidential authority. I. From Independence to WWI a. The Monroe Doctrine – In 1823, President James Monroe restated America’s intentions to stay out of European Affairs and warned European nations to stay out of the Americas. The US would see, “any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety” b. A World Power – The US emerged as a first-class power in world politics with the Spanish-American War in 1898. America became a colonial power with its interests extending to Alaska, the tip of Latin America, and across the Pacific to the Philippines The Good Neighbor Policy – Franklin’s policy to make a conscious effort to make friends to the south. The Monroe warning against foreign encroachments in the Western Hemisphere is outlined in the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance of 1947. The Open Door Policy in China – promoted equal trade access for all nations and demanded that China’s independence and sovereignty be preserved WWI and the Return to Isolationism a. The US ended their isolationism and entered WWI after German submariners campaigns against American shipping in the North Atlantic. However, the US returned to isolationism and refused to join the League of Nations. WWII and Two New Principals a. WWII brought a historic shift from isolationism to internationalism. US looked to the principle of collective security to keep peace and order. The policy of deterrence – strategy of maintaining US military might at a level to deter or prevent attack – remains a major part of policy. Resisting Soviet Aggression a. The Cold War was the period of more than 40 years during which relations between the two superpowers (the US and Russia) hostile. b. The Truman Doctrine – “the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure”. This was a part of the US policy of containment – belief that if communism could be kept within its existing boundaries, it would collapse under its own internal weaknesses c. The Berlin Blockade, The Cuban Missile Crisis, The Korean War, The War in Vietnam Dentente a. Following Vietnam, the Nixon Administration embarked on a policy of détente – a relaxing of tensions and attempt to improve relations with the Soviet Union and China. Ended when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan. The End of the Cold War - In late 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed. Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances I. Foreign Aid – economic and military aid to other countries. Security Alliances a. Regional security alliances – treaties in which the US and other countries involved have agreed to take collective action to meet aggression in a particular part of the world b. NATO – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization i. Alliance was formed initially to promote the collective defense of Western Europe, particularly against Soviet aggression. Today, each of the 26 member countries, have agreed that “an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or in North America shall be considered an attack against all” Other Alliances – The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, ANZUS – unites Australia, New Zealand, and the US, the Japanese Pact – mutual defense of Japan and the US The Middle East – The US has had two interests – long-standing support of Israel and critical importance of Arab oil The United Nations a. Formed at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco in 1945. b. Today, the UN has 192 members. Membership is open to “peace loving states” who accept the obligations of the charter and are able and willing to carry out those obligations. c. Six principal organs – General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice, and Secretariat General Assembly – “town meeting of the world”; Each of the UN’s members has a seat and a vote in the assembly. Meets once a year, usually in September The Security Council – bear the major responsibility of maintaining international peace. 15 members; 5 are permanent (the US, Britain, France, Russia, China) and 10 are chosen by the General Assembly for 2 year terms The intended purpose of the UN is to make the world a better place. Peacekeeping is the primary function. The UN’s specialized agencies spend 4 billion a year for economic and social programs to help the world’s poorest nations. UNICEF and WHO have immunized 80% of the world’s children against six major killer diseases.