NEPWorkshop5_4

Report
ONTARIO
International Transport and logistics
Section 4: Ocean transportation
Types of Vessels
SUPER TANKER (liquids)
(Abqaiq)
PROJECT
VESSEL
CON-RO
RO-RO
BULK CARGO
(Sabrina 1)
CONTAINER
OCEAN SHIPPING
In volume, the transportation by vessel represent
more than 90% of all international movements.
By Bulk:
Petrolium, Grain, coal, chemicals
By Containers:
FCL (Full container load) 20 feet, 40, 40HC,45
LCL (less than container load) consolidation
Reefer -10 degrees ou Temp control 4 degrees)
Open-top
Plateform
Tankers
OCEAN TRANSPORT
Loading types
• Bulk
(grain, cereals,cement,
coal, minerals, etc)
• Liquids
• Ocean Containers
• Unit loading
• mechanical loading
• merchandize on skids
• merchandize in cases
• heavy merchandize
• oversize
OCEAN SHIPPING
A. The container:
Numerous advantages:
•
•
•
•
•
Regroups the merchandize in a single unit;
Adapted for ocean, rail and road transportation;
It’s rectangular shape permits easy handling;
Protects the freight against damage (packaging) and theft (seals);
The industry as standardize dimensions mainly into 20 and 40 feet long
steel containers.
• The reference dimension is called TEU’s for twenty feet equivalent units.
OCEAN SHIPPING
B. Rates:
For FCL, rates are calculated by container (box).
For LCL, rates are calculated by cubic meter. The customer
pays for the SPACE taken in the container.
OCEAN CONTAINERS
Main ocean containers
20’, 40’, 40’HC, 45’*
Standard width: 8’
Standard height: 8,5’
HC height:
9,5’
NOTE:
Charge:
20’:
24 TM
40’:
30 TM
Limits of charge vary
depending on country of
origin / destination road
rules.
There are other types of containers.
* Available on certain destinations only
OCEAN SHIPPING
OCEAN SHIPPING
OCEAN CONTAINERS
Open top containers
20’, 40’
Standard width: 8’
Standard height: 8,5’
Charge:
20’:
18 TM
40’:
25 TM
. Charging limits can vary
upon country road rules.
. Loading with cranes.
OCEAN SHIPPING
OCEAN CONTAINERS
Temperature control20’*, 40’
Standard width: 8’
Standard height: 8,5’
Charge:
20’:
18 TM
40’:
25 TM
. Charging limits can vary
upon countries road rules.
. Temperature around 4
degrees C.
. Freezers around -10
degrees C.
* Available on certain corridors only
CONTENEURS MARITIMES
Platform
20’, 40’
Standard width: 8’
Standard height: 8,5’
Charge:
20’:
18 TM
40’:
25 TM
. Loading limits can vary
upon road rules in
countries.
OCEAN CONTAINERS
TANKER
* Available on certain corridors only
20’
WASHED CONTAINERS ISO + LOAD INFOS
HOW TO MAXIMIZE THE LOADING OF YOUR CARGO?
Domains of Maritime Circulation
Rhine
St. Lawrence
Gibraltar
Mississippi
Danube Bosporus
Suez
Huang He
Hormuz
Bab el-Mandab
Panama
Yangtze
Xi Jiang
Mekong
Malacca
Amazon
Good Hope
Magellan
Copyright © 1998-2009, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use
ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or
electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Operator
World’s Largest Maritime Container Shipping
Operators,Owned
2007
Market Total
Chartered
Share
TEU
Ships
TEU
Ships
TEU
Ships
APM-Maersk
16.1%
1,874,502
524
975,054
184
899,448
340
MSC
10.5%
1,217,013
370
691,334
212
525,679
158
CMA CGM
7.4%
864,669
360
267,921
87
596,748
273
Evergreen
5.3%
618,458
175
376,331
107
242,127
68
Hapag-Lloyd
4.2%
487,283
139
247,831
60
239,452
79
China
Shipping
3.8%
437,183
141
251,192
87
185,991
54
COSCO
3.6%
420,410
139
222,437
93
197,973
46
APL
3.4%
400,865
122
139,690
38
261,175
84
NYK
3.2%
375,949
125
229,333
48
146,616
77
OOCL
2.9%
343,228
81
195,759
34
147,469
47
Total Top 10
60.4%
7,039,560
2,276
3,596,882
950
3,442,678
1,226
Total Top 50
91.1%
10,310,241
3,936
5,134,563
1,652
5,475,678
2,284
MAERSK LINE
http://www.maerskline.com/appmanager/
SAILING SCHEDULE: NY to South east Asia to Freemantle
NYC
CHI
HOU
PDX
SEA
SFO
LAX
LAX
SIN
Maersk
9507
09/20
09/20
09/20
09/25
09/25
09/27
09/27
10/01
10/18
Arthur
9517
09/27
09/27
09/27
09/29
09/29
10/04
10/04
10/08
10/29
Long 9511
10/04
10/04
10/04
10/09
10/09
10/11
10/11
10/15
11/01
Luna 9517
10/11
10/11
10/11
10/16
10/16
18/10
18/10
22/10
11/08
Axel 9519
10/18
10/18
10/18
10/23
10/23
10/25
10/25
10/29
11/15
BKK
PTK
JAK
FRE
10/21
10/25
10/28
10/25
11/04
11/04
11/08
11/12
11/11
11/18
11/18
11/22
11/25
ON LINE SAILING SCHEDULES
www.ports.com
PANAMAX and POST-PANAMAX
The Post-Panamax (or Overpanamax, Postpanamax) classified
vessels have a larger capacity than the Panamax class, i.e.
exceeding the dimensions to use the Panama Canal lock
(écluses).
• Prior to the 1990’s, the Panamax class was the main factor influencing
naval architecture for the size of vessels.
• Changes happened due to increase in traffic and volumes of business
(Asia) to benefit from the economy of scale.
• 2009-2010: Depression in the economy. Less vessels on the seas and less
vessels in construction in shipyards.
LOADING / UNLOADING AT PORT OF JAWAHARLAL, MUMBAI, India
OCEAN CARGO CALCULATION
FULL CONTAINERS:



The tare mass (weight) is the weight of an empty container.
The payload is the weight of the cargo is it’s maximum gross
weight
Maximum gross weight is the maximum weight including the
cargo
PALLETS:
When the cargo is being loaded on pallets inside the container,
remember to include the size, weight and quantity of the pallet
in the overall calculation.
CONTAINER LOADING / STUFFING
Stuffing Plan
To avoid problems such as cargo overflow or wastage of
space, it is essential for shippers to have a stuffing plan
before cargo is loaded into the container.
Measurement
Generally speaking, a 20' container can hold as much as
26-28 cbm or 980-1,060 cu.ft., while a 40' can hold about
56-58 cbm or 1,980-2,110 cu.ft. and a 40’HC can hold 6062cbm.
The actual loading Internal Capacity of a container
depends not only on the dimensions of the carton boxes
but also on many other factors such as the packaging
material and the competence and experience of the
stuffing personnel.
CONTAINER LOADING / STUFFING
Weight
Besides the cargo's measurement, the stuffing plan should also
take the weight into consideration. It is important to note that
in many countries the permissible weight limits for road and rail
transportation are lower than the maximum payload a container
can afford.
CONTAINER LOADING / STUFFING
CONTAINER LOADING / STUFFING
INSIDE CONTAINER CALCULATION
CONTAINER LOADING
CONTAINER LOADING
WWW.CANADIANSAILINGS.CA
OCEAN RATING
OCEAN TARIFFS:
Steamship lines and NVOCC’s publish their rates in tariffs.
Ocean rates are regulated and are lane specific (sometimes
commodity, ex. fruits in South America).
So, they have less flexibility, officially.
‘According to FMC: Offer equitable rates = same rate to all
customers tendering the same commodity under similar
circumstances’.
• Tariffs, Rates are for FCL
• For LCL, rates are determined using the volume of the freight.
It is fixed at the ‘discretion’ of the freight forwarder.
OCEAN PRICES
RATES LOCATION:
From and to locations can be either a terminal (inland or a port),
which is equal to Container yard or a location where the
container is to be stuffed, which is equal to Store door.
CONTAINER YARD (CY):
Port facility at which containers are accepted for loading onboard
ships, and off-loaded containers are delivered to the consignees.
Also called Marshalling yard.
OCEAN TRANSPORT RATES
Container rating
POTENTIAL EXTRA FEES TO THE FREIGHT:
Origin fees:
• Local transport origin to port
• Terminal charges (THC) origin
• Documentation charges
• B.A.F. (fuel surcharge, caused by fluctuation)
• C.A.F. (currency adjustment)
• Security fees
Destination fees:
•Terminal charges (THC) destination
•Local transport from port to destination
ASKING FOR A QUOTE
Q. How to know if you are quoted the fair price for your movement?
A. Obtain quotes, minimum 2 or 3 to compare and choose.
Q. How to know if you are charged the quoted price for your movement?
A. Compare the invoice with the quote!
BE PRECISE: When contacting a freight / Ocean forwarder for a quotation,
the information YOU are supplying are crucial. Why?
• A difference in size or in weight can have a large impact of final rate
that will be charged.
• The forwarder does not see or touch your freight
• They work with your information; if not precise, potential problem.
QUOTE REQUEST
YOUR responsibility:
Supply complete informations
FORWARDER’s responsibility:
Supply detailed quote
AVOID to accept an ‘all included’ rate. Example:
‘It will be 1200$ + taxes’.
QUOTE REQUEST
AVOID ASSUMING by asking for a documented and
complete quote:
REGULAR movements:
 Obtain minimum 3 quotations from forwarders
 Re-look at your rates regularly, maximum 3 months
OCCASIONALs movements / Spot Quotes:
 Obtain minimum 3 quotations from forwarders
 Quotes need to be detailled (see attached)
 Compare, select forwarder and contact by phone + email
 Build an ‘Open shipments’ table for follow-ups (in your ERP or
Excel sheet)
QUOTE REQUEST EXAMPLE 1 of 2
QUOTE REQUEST EXAMPLE 2 of 2
QUOTE RESULT EXAMPLE 1 of 2
QUOTE RESULT EXAMPLE 2 of 2

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