Unit_1_Parts_of_Speech Final

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GRAMMAR:
PARTS OF
SPEECH
NOUNS

Person: hero, teacher, audience, Mai Ling

Place: museums, countries, rain forest, San Diego

Thing: stereo, songs, fences, Pacific Ocean

Idea: sympathy, fairness, generosity, Impressionism
TYPES OF NOUNS

Common noun: names any one of a groups of
persons, places, things or ideas.
Generally not capitalized
 Mountain, novelist, ship, movie


Proper noun: names a particular Peron, place
thing or idea.
Generally capitalized
 Mount McKinley, Edith Hamilton, Queen Elizabeth

TYPES OF NOUN

Concrete noun

Can be perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, touch,
hearing, taste, smell)


Abstract nouns

Names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic.


Liberty, beauty, kindness, success, Marxism
Collective nouns

A group of people, animals, or things


Dog, sunset, thunder, silk, Nile River
Audience, batch, bouquet, bunch, litter, jury, pride, staff
Compound Nouns

2 or more words that together name a person, place, thing,
idea

Baseball, Civil Rights, sister-in-law
IDENTIFY THE TYPES OF NOUNS

Gumbos often contain, okra and sausage,
chicken, or seafood.
Gumbos: common, concrete
 Okra, sausage, chicken, seafood: common, concrete


The popularity of these dishes and other Cajun
dishes has spread throughout the United States.
Popularity
 dishes: common, concrete
 United States: proper, concrete, compound

PRONOUNS

Takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns
 She,

her, his, him, they, their
Antecedent: the word or word group that a
pronoun stands for.

Example: Ms. Hamfeldt is a tough teacher. She
gives way too much work.

Which is the pronoun? Which is the antecedent?
PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Refers to
The one speaking (first person)
 The one spoken to (second person)
 The one spoken about (third person)

Singular
Plural
First Person
I, me, my, mine
We, us, our, ours
Second Person
You, your, yours
You, your, yours
Third Person
He, him, his, she, They, them,
her, hers, it, its
their, theirs
REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS
First Person
Myself, ourselves
Second Person
Yourself, yourselves
Third Person
Himself, herself, itself,
themselves,
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN

Refers to the subject of a sentences and functions
as a complement or as an object of a preposition

I am not quit myself today


Cecilia let herself take a study break


Myself is a predicate nominative identifying I
Herself is the direct object of let
They chose costumes for themselves

Themselves is the object of the preposition for
INTENSIVE PRONOUN

Has no grammatical function in the sentence.

Ray painted the mural himself

The children dyed the eggs themselves.
DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE
PRONOUNS

Demonstrative: Points out a person, place,
thing, or idea.
This is our favorite camp site.
 These books are going to Goodwill

This

That
These
Those
Interrogative Pronouns: Introduces a question
What is the address of the house?
 Whose red truck is parked outside the house?

Who
whom
which
what
whose
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Refers to a person, place, thing or idea that may
or may not be specifically named.
Has anyone asked Ms. Stallsworth?
 Everything we need is packed in the car.

All
Each other
Most
One another
Another
Either
Much
Other
Any
Everybody
Neither
Several
Anybody
Everyone
Nobody
Some
Anyone
Everything
None
Somebody
Anything
Few
No one
Someone
Both
Many
Nothing
Something
Each
more
one
such
IDENTIFY THE PRONOUN(S) IN THE
SENTENCE

All of the other members of my family like to go
camping, but few of them enjoy the outdoors
more than I do.

All of us enjoy anything cooked over a campfire.

Often we tell each other eerrie stories.

Who want to go to sleep afterwards?
ADJECTIVES
 Modifies a noun or pronoun.

Modify means “to describe” or “to make the meaning
of a word more specific”
What Kind?
Which One?
How Many?
How Much?
spilled ink
this park
twenty miles
no salt
English tea
these papers
two men
enough water
howling
winds
that house
several apples some food


An adjective may be separated from the word it
modifies:

She is clever.

The sky had become cloudy suddenly.
Note: An adjective that is in the predicate and
that modifies the subject of a clause or sentence
is called a predicate adjective.
ARTICLES
 Most
frequently used adjectives are a, an,
and the

Indefinite articles: a, an


Refer to any member of a general group; come before
words that start with vowels
Definite article: the

Refers to someone or something in particular
 Examples:


A representative is going to help us.
The representative is going to help us.
PRONOUN OR ADJECTIVE?
Demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite
terms pronouns when they stand for other nouns
or pronouns.
 When they modify nouns or pronouns, they are
adjectives.
 Examples:

Pronoun: Which did you choose, Roberto?
Adjective: Which book did you choose to read, Alex?
 Pronoun: Those are excited fans.
Adjective: Those fans are excited.

NOUN OR ADJECTIVE?
 When
a word that can be used as a noun
modifies a noun or pronoun, it is called an
adjective.
 Examples:




Salad bowl
Chicken dinner
Gold metal
New England states

Proper nouns remain capitalized when used as an
adjective; it is called a proper adjective
VERBS
A
verb expresses action or a
state of being. There are three
kinds:
 Main
or helping (auxiliary) verbs
 Action or linking verbs
 Transitive or intransitive verbs
MAIN VERBS AND HELPING VERBS

A verb phrase consists of a main verb and one
or more helping (auxiliary) verbs.
Commonly
Used
Helping
Verbs
Forms of Be
am
are
be
been
being
is
was
were
Forms of Have
had
has
have
having
Forms of Do
did
do
does
Modals
can
could
may
might
must
ought
shall
should
will
would
NOTES ON VERBS

Modals are auxiliary verbs that are used to
express an attitude toward the action or state of
being of the main verb.

Example: I may go to the concert after all.


Helping verbs may be separated from the main
verb


May expresses an attitude of possibility in relation to the
main verb go
Did she paint the house?
The word not and its contraction n’t are never
part of a verb phrase; they are considered
adverbs telling to what extent.
ACTION VERBS


An action verb expresses either physical or
mental activity.
Physical:
bring
say
shout
jump
Mental:
ponder
trust
evaluate
guess
Examples
Please return this book. (physical action)
 Do you know James? (mental action)

LINKING VERBS
Connects the subject to a word or word group
that identifies or describes the subject. This word
group is called a subject complement.
 Example:


Kelp is the scientific name for seaweed.


Subject complement is name; it identifies Kelp
Kelp tastes good in salads.

Subject complement is good; it describes Kelp
Commonly Used Linking Verbs
Forms of Be
be
were
shall have been
should be
being
shall be
will have been
would be
am
will be
can be
could be
is
has been
may be
should have been
are
have been
might be
would have been
was
had been
must be
could have been
Others
appear
grow
seem
stay
become
look
smell
taste
feel
remain
sound
turn
Some of the verbs listed as Others can be used as
action verbs as well as linking verbs.
FORMS OF BE
 Not
always used as linking verbs
 An adverb that tells where or when may
follow the form of be
 This makes it a state-of-being verb
 Example:

My friends and I were there yesterday.
There tells where
 Yesterday tells when

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS
Transitive verbs have an object: a word that
tells who or what receives the action of the verb
 Examples:


She trusts her friend.


friend receives the action of the verb trusts
Zora Neale Hurston wrote novels.

novels receives the action of the verb wrote
Intransitive verbs does not have an object.
 Examples:




The audience applauded.
The trains stops here.
A verb could transitive in one sentence and
intransitive in another.
NOTES INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE
VERBS

Action verbs can be transitive or intransitive.
I studied my geometry notes for an hour.
 Luis also studied for an hour.


All linking verbs are intransitive
We are ready for the quiz.
 We were told to study a lot.


A verb phrase may be classified as transitive or
intransitive and as action or linking
We are planting some cactus dahlias. (transitive
action)
 They should bloom in about six weeks. (intransitive
action)
 The flowers will be deep red. (intransitive linking)

ADVERBS

Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

Tells where, when, how, to what extent

Example
The bird was chirping outside. (where)
 The bird chirped today. (when)
 The bird chirped loudly. (how)
 The bird never chirped. (to what extent)

EXAMPLES

Identify each adverb and the verb it modifies.

Birds, bats, and bugs fly effortlessly.


In their experiments, they initially produced hot
smoke by burning straw and wood.


Adverb: effortlessly Verb: fly
Adverb: initially Verb: produced
Humans successfully flew for the first time in
November of 1783.

Adverb: successfully Verb: flew
EXAMPLES


Identify each adverb and the adjective or adverb it
modifies
The immensely long wagon train started out from Denver,
Colorado.


A moderately hard rain could turn the trail into a swamp.


Adverb: moderately adjective: hard
The large ones we saw were too expensive for us.


Adverb: immensely Adjective: long
Adverb: too adjective: expensive
Suddenly, Juana had a brainstorm.

Adverb: Suddenly Verb: had
PREPOSITIONS


A word that shows the relationship of a noun or
pronoun (object of preposition) to another word.

I rode past the (village)

I rode through the (village).

I rode around the (village).
A preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the
object form a prepositional phrase.
COMMONLY USED PREPOSITIONS
Aboard
Aound
But
(except)
Into
Past
Up
About
At
By
Like
Since
Upon
Above
Before
Concerni
ng
Near
Such as
With
Across
Behind
Down
Of
Though
Within
After
Below
During
Off
Througho Without
ut
Against
Beneath
Except
On
To
Along
Beside
For
Onto
Toward
Amid
Besides
From
Out
Under
Among
Between
In
Outside
Undernea
th
As
Beyond
Insdie
Over
Until
COMPOUND PREPOSITION

A preposition that consists of two or more
prepositions
According to
In addition to
Instead of
Because of
in front of
On account of
By means of
in spite of
Prior to
FIND THE PREPOSITIONS


According to the coaches of the opposing team,
the soccer game was delayed because of rain.
Near the edge of the stream, the ducks swam
were entering the water to swim across the lake
to the other side.
CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction joins words or word groups

Correlative conjunctions


Pairs of conjunctions that join words or words groups
that are used in the same way
Coordinating conjunctions

Join words or word groups that are used in the same
way
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:
FANBOYS
For
And
Nor
Or
Yet
So
Examples:
The orchestra played waltzes and polkas.
We can walk to the neighborhood pool or the park.
But
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Both… and
Not only… but also
Either… or
Whether… or
Neither…nor
Examples:
Neither the baseball team nor the soccer team has practice today.
Both the track team and the volleyball team enjoyed a winning season.
Their victories sparked the enthusiasm not only of students but also of
teachers and townspeople.
IDENTIFY THE CONJUNCTIONS



Both the captains and their crew members looked
forward to such visits.
The sailors enjoyed the opportunity not only to
chat but also to exchange news.
I looked for Will, but he had already left.
DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH

Identify the part of speech of the underlined
words in each example:

Rich heard the light patter of raindrops.

Please help your sister with her homework.

All but two of the students voted in the class
elections.
DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH

The same word can be a different part of speech depending
on how it is used in a sentence. So, identify the parts of
speech of the word in each example:
They decided that the hedge needed a trim.
 Their hedges always look trim and nest.
 We usually trim the tree with homemade
ornaments.

I wasn’t thirsty, but I did down one glass of
water.
 Dale ran down the stairs.


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