GRAMMAR: PARTS OF SPEECH NOUNS Person: hero, teacher, audience, Mai Ling Place: museums, countries, rain forest, San Diego Thing: stereo, songs, fences, Pacific Ocean Idea: sympathy, fairness, generosity, Impressionism TYPES OF NOUNS Common noun: names any one of a groups of persons, places, things or ideas. Generally not capitalized Mountain, novelist, ship, movie Proper noun: names a particular Peron, place thing or idea. Generally capitalized Mount McKinley, Edith Hamilton, Queen Elizabeth TYPES OF NOUN Concrete noun Can be perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, touch, hearing, taste, smell) Abstract nouns Names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. Liberty, beauty, kindness, success, Marxism Collective nouns A group of people, animals, or things Dog, sunset, thunder, silk, Nile River Audience, batch, bouquet, bunch, litter, jury, pride, staff Compound Nouns 2 or more words that together name a person, place, thing, idea Baseball, Civil Rights, sister-in-law IDENTIFY THE TYPES OF NOUNS Gumbos often contain, okra and sausage, chicken, or seafood. Gumbos: common, concrete Okra, sausage, chicken, seafood: common, concrete The popularity of these dishes and other Cajun dishes has spread throughout the United States. Popularity dishes: common, concrete United States: proper, concrete, compound PRONOUNS Takes the place of one or more nouns or pronouns She, her, his, him, they, their Antecedent: the word or word group that a pronoun stands for. Example: Ms. Hamfeldt is a tough teacher. She gives way too much work. Which is the pronoun? Which is the antecedent? PERSONAL PRONOUNS Refers to The one speaking (first person) The one spoken to (second person) The one spoken about (third person) Singular Plural First Person I, me, my, mine We, us, our, ours Second Person You, your, yours You, your, yours Third Person He, him, his, she, They, them, her, hers, it, its their, theirs REFLEXIVE AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS First Person Myself, ourselves Second Person Yourself, yourselves Third Person Himself, herself, itself, themselves, REFLEXIVE PRONOUN Refers to the subject of a sentences and functions as a complement or as an object of a preposition I am not quit myself today Cecilia let herself take a study break Myself is a predicate nominative identifying I Herself is the direct object of let They chose costumes for themselves Themselves is the object of the preposition for INTENSIVE PRONOUN Has no grammatical function in the sentence. Ray painted the mural himself The children dyed the eggs themselves. DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS Demonstrative: Points out a person, place, thing, or idea. This is our favorite camp site. These books are going to Goodwill This That These Those Interrogative Pronouns: Introduces a question What is the address of the house? Whose red truck is parked outside the house? Who whom which what whose INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Refers to a person, place, thing or idea that may or may not be specifically named. Has anyone asked Ms. Stallsworth? Everything we need is packed in the car. All Each other Most One another Another Either Much Other Any Everybody Neither Several Anybody Everyone Nobody Some Anyone Everything None Somebody Anything Few No one Someone Both Many Nothing Something Each more one such IDENTIFY THE PRONOUN(S) IN THE SENTENCE All of the other members of my family like to go camping, but few of them enjoy the outdoors more than I do. All of us enjoy anything cooked over a campfire. Often we tell each other eerrie stories. Who want to go to sleep afterwards? ADJECTIVES Modifies a noun or pronoun. Modify means “to describe” or “to make the meaning of a word more specific” What Kind? Which One? How Many? How Much? spilled ink this park twenty miles no salt English tea these papers two men enough water howling winds that house several apples some food An adjective may be separated from the word it modifies: She is clever. The sky had become cloudy suddenly. Note: An adjective that is in the predicate and that modifies the subject of a clause or sentence is called a predicate adjective. ARTICLES Most frequently used adjectives are a, an, and the Indefinite articles: a, an Refer to any member of a general group; come before words that start with vowels Definite article: the Refers to someone or something in particular Examples: A representative is going to help us. The representative is going to help us. PRONOUN OR ADJECTIVE? Demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite terms pronouns when they stand for other nouns or pronouns. When they modify nouns or pronouns, they are adjectives. Examples: Pronoun: Which did you choose, Roberto? Adjective: Which book did you choose to read, Alex? Pronoun: Those are excited fans. Adjective: Those fans are excited. NOUN OR ADJECTIVE? When a word that can be used as a noun modifies a noun or pronoun, it is called an adjective. Examples: Salad bowl Chicken dinner Gold metal New England states Proper nouns remain capitalized when used as an adjective; it is called a proper adjective VERBS A verb expresses action or a state of being. There are three kinds: Main or helping (auxiliary) verbs Action or linking verbs Transitive or intransitive verbs MAIN VERBS AND HELPING VERBS A verb phrase consists of a main verb and one or more helping (auxiliary) verbs. Commonly Used Helping Verbs Forms of Be am are be been being is was were Forms of Have had has have having Forms of Do did do does Modals can could may might must ought shall should will would NOTES ON VERBS Modals are auxiliary verbs that are used to express an attitude toward the action or state of being of the main verb. Example: I may go to the concert after all. Helping verbs may be separated from the main verb May expresses an attitude of possibility in relation to the main verb go Did she paint the house? The word not and its contraction n’t are never part of a verb phrase; they are considered adverbs telling to what extent. ACTION VERBS An action verb expresses either physical or mental activity. Physical: bring say shout jump Mental: ponder trust evaluate guess Examples Please return this book. (physical action) Do you know James? (mental action) LINKING VERBS Connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. This word group is called a subject complement. Example: Kelp is the scientific name for seaweed. Subject complement is name; it identifies Kelp Kelp tastes good in salads. Subject complement is good; it describes Kelp Commonly Used Linking Verbs Forms of Be be were shall have been should be being shall be will have been would be am will be can be could be is has been may be should have been are have been might be would have been was had been must be could have been Others appear grow seem stay become look smell taste feel remain sound turn Some of the verbs listed as Others can be used as action verbs as well as linking verbs. FORMS OF BE Not always used as linking verbs An adverb that tells where or when may follow the form of be This makes it a state-of-being verb Example: My friends and I were there yesterday. There tells where Yesterday tells when TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS Transitive verbs have an object: a word that tells who or what receives the action of the verb Examples: She trusts her friend. friend receives the action of the verb trusts Zora Neale Hurston wrote novels. novels receives the action of the verb wrote Intransitive verbs does not have an object. Examples: The audience applauded. The trains stops here. A verb could transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another. NOTES INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS Action verbs can be transitive or intransitive. I studied my geometry notes for an hour. Luis also studied for an hour. All linking verbs are intransitive We are ready for the quiz. We were told to study a lot. A verb phrase may be classified as transitive or intransitive and as action or linking We are planting some cactus dahlias. (transitive action) They should bloom in about six weeks. (intransitive action) The flowers will be deep red. (intransitive linking) ADVERBS Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb Tells where, when, how, to what extent Example The bird was chirping outside. (where) The bird chirped today. (when) The bird chirped loudly. (how) The bird never chirped. (to what extent) EXAMPLES Identify each adverb and the verb it modifies. Birds, bats, and bugs fly effortlessly. In their experiments, they initially produced hot smoke by burning straw and wood. Adverb: effortlessly Verb: fly Adverb: initially Verb: produced Humans successfully flew for the first time in November of 1783. Adverb: successfully Verb: flew EXAMPLES Identify each adverb and the adjective or adverb it modifies The immensely long wagon train started out from Denver, Colorado. A moderately hard rain could turn the trail into a swamp. Adverb: moderately adjective: hard The large ones we saw were too expensive for us. Adverb: immensely Adjective: long Adverb: too adjective: expensive Suddenly, Juana had a brainstorm. Adverb: Suddenly Verb: had PREPOSITIONS A word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun (object of preposition) to another word. I rode past the (village) I rode through the (village). I rode around the (village). A preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object form a prepositional phrase. COMMONLY USED PREPOSITIONS Aboard Aound But (except) Into Past Up About At By Like Since Upon Above Before Concerni ng Near Such as With Across Behind Down Of Though Within After Below During Off Througho Without ut Against Beneath Except On To Along Beside For Onto Toward Amid Besides From Out Under Among Between In Outside Undernea th As Beyond Insdie Over Until COMPOUND PREPOSITION A preposition that consists of two or more prepositions According to In addition to Instead of Because of in front of On account of By means of in spite of Prior to FIND THE PREPOSITIONS According to the coaches of the opposing team, the soccer game was delayed because of rain. Near the edge of the stream, the ducks swam were entering the water to swim across the lake to the other side. CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction joins words or word groups Correlative conjunctions Pairs of conjunctions that join words or words groups that are used in the same way Coordinating conjunctions Join words or word groups that are used in the same way COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: FANBOYS For And Nor Or Yet So Examples: The orchestra played waltzes and polkas. We can walk to the neighborhood pool or the park. But CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS Both… and Not only… but also Either… or Whether… or Neither…nor Examples: Neither the baseball team nor the soccer team has practice today. Both the track team and the volleyball team enjoyed a winning season. Their victories sparked the enthusiasm not only of students but also of teachers and townspeople. IDENTIFY THE CONJUNCTIONS Both the captains and their crew members looked forward to such visits. The sailors enjoyed the opportunity not only to chat but also to exchange news. I looked for Will, but he had already left. DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH Identify the part of speech of the underlined words in each example: Rich heard the light patter of raindrops. Please help your sister with her homework. All but two of the students voted in the class elections. DETERMINING PARTS OF SPEECH The same word can be a different part of speech depending on how it is used in a sentence. So, identify the parts of speech of the word in each example: They decided that the hedge needed a trim. Their hedges always look trim and nest. We usually trim the tree with homemade ornaments. I wasn’t thirsty, but I did down one glass of water. Dale ran down the stairs.