TCP/IP Model - Lindsay C Haley's ePortfolio

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Natalie DeKoker, Lindsay Haley,
Jordan Lunda, and Matthew Ott
• A number assigned to each computer or device connected to
a network using the internet.
• They are displayed as binary numbers
• Dispersed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA)
Data Packet
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.2
• Using example IP address slide 192.168.1.0
• Host ID = last 8 (down to 2) numbers
• Network ID = first 24 (up to 30) numbers of
• 11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 00 (192.168.1.0)
• 11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 01 (192.168.1.1)
• 11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 10 (192.168.1.2)
• 11000000.10101000.00000001.000000 11 (192.168.1.3)
• Default Gateway and Routing Table
• Allows a computer to tell if the receiving computer is on the
same LAN
• Always 32 bits – a decimal every 8 bits (octets)
From:
To:
Subnet Mask:
00010101.01000000.01101001 .00000001
(21.64.105.1)
00010101.01000000.01101001 .00000010
(21.64.105.2)
11111111.11111111.11111111 .00000000 (255.255.255.0)
If Logical AND operation is true, then we are on the same LAN!
11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 = /8 (Class A)
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 = /16 (Class B)
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 = /24 (Class C)
11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 = /26
Calculate Number of Subnets
2^(number of network ID extension digits) – 2 = number of new subnets
Modify Subnet Mask
11111111.11111111.11111111.0000000
 11111111.11111111.11111111.1100000
• Host ID = usually last 8 numbers
• Network ID = usually first 24 numbers of
• 11000000.10101000.00000001.01000000 (192.168.1.64)
• 11000000.10101000.00000001.10000000 (192.168.1.128)
Calculating Hosts
From number of zeroes in binary address of the subnet mask, we
get:
2(number of zeroes) – 2 = number of possible hosts
Note: The more subnets we make, the less hosts we can have per subnet!
CIDR = Classless Inter-Domain Routing
This is how ISP’s allot their IP addresses.
A
Request
I am looking for theI’m the node you’re
looking for! My MAC
physical address of the
address is
node with the IP
A2:3D:46:8E:7B:13.
address 172.16.254.1.
B
Reply
• Allows host to communicate with other hosts when only the
neighbor address is known
• Host requests own IP address via network
• Host sends hardware address (MAC)
192.168.0.1
• Network assign IP address
2e:3d:6c:4f:b2:15
Want
192.168.3.2 as
• Network automatically
assigns
IP
address
Anyone out there?
your IP address?
Can I have an IP address?
• DHCP
Yes, please.
This address will
expire in 7 days.
Ok!
• APIPA
Anyone out there?
Can I have an IP address?
Ok, I’ll assign myself
169.254.0.3 for now,
and I’ll check back
later.
ZZZzzzZZZzzzZZZ
• Manually assigning addresses
• Assign a unique address!
172.22.37.8
172.22.37.8
172.22.37.16
• Manually assigning addresses
• Assign a unique address!
• Verify by pinging a known IP address

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