Changing Economic and Social Patterns Key Questions • A. What economic goals have Middle Eastern nations pursued? • 1.Reduce European economic influence turned to socialism – government control of the economy. Nationalized foreign controlled businesses( banking, oil) • • B. How have Middle eastern Nations improved their agriculture? • 1. desalination – convert salt water into fresh water for drinking an dirrigation. • 2. fertigation – pump water and fertilizer directly to the roots of plants. • Better seeds and machines for planting and harvesting. • Gave land to poor people to increase production and decrease rural poverty. • C. How has oil affected Middle eastern Countries? • 1. Oil-rich nations give money and loans to poorer neighbors. • Oil-producing countries provide millions of jobs to workers from other countries. • D. What are some effects of rapid population growth and urbanization? • 1. urbanization – movement of people from the country to the city. • 2. crowded neighborhoods • 3. scarce jobs • 4. Education and attitudes of children can create conflict with older people. Three Nations on the Road to Modernization • A. What were the causes of the Islamic revolution in Iran? • 1. Income gap between the westernized middle and upper classes and the rest of the people. • 2. Anger over increased dependence on the West. • • 1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini reutrned from exile in France to lead the revolution. • Created a theocracy – nation ruled by religious leaders. • Made Koran basis of all law. • Enforced strict Muslim traditions • Banned western music and movies • Held 52 American citizens hostage for over a year • What economic policies have egyptian leaders followed? • 1.promotes Arab Socialism • 2. Nationalized industries and businesses • 3. Took control of the Suez Canal • 4. Built the Aswan High dam – low cost power for factories and homes. • How has Turkey progressed toward modernization? • 1. Ataturk, Turkey’s first president began the modernization. • 2. Turkey became a secular state (government not controlled by religious leaders) • 3. Developed agriculture by using new farming methods. • 4. Developed manufacturing • 5. Built dams to provide hydroelectric power.