Phosphorus Nutrition of Cotton

Report
Phosphorus Nutrition
of Cotton
Outline - P Nutrition of
Cotton
• U.S. cotton yields since 1975
• Growth and development
of the cotton plant
• Nutrient uptake
• General P nutrition and
response
• P placement options
• Conclusions
U.S. Cotton Yield,
1975 to Present . . .
An Increasing Trend
Lint, lb/A
750
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
Year
Source: USDA-NASS
01
99
97
95
93
91
89
87
85
83
81
79
77
75
300
A Production Timeline for
Irrigated Cotton in the
Texas High Plains
May
June
Emergence
0
10
0
80
Squaring
20
30
Approximate days
after planting
Source: R. Boman
July
40
525
August
1st bloom
50
60
70
1060
Approximate heat
units after planting
September
Peak bloom 1st open boll
80
90 100 110
1470
1640
October
95% mature
Harvest
120 130 140 150 160
2280
Nov
Early Season Root
Development
of the Cotton Plant
Source: Oosterhuis, 1990
Cotton Root Length as
Affected by Days After
Planting (Field Study)
Roots, ft/plant
1,800
1,600
Based on 36,000 plants/A, there were 9,545 miles of roots /A
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
First bloom
600
4 true leaves
Late bloom/early boll filling
400
200
0
0
37
49
64
87
99
Days after planting
Source: Schwab, Mullins & Burmester, 2000
112
122
134
151
Dry Matter Accumulation,
and Nitrogen and
Phosphorus Uptake of Cotton
Maximum Accumulation (%)
100
Dry weight and phosphorus
Nitrogen
*
50%
open boll
* 20% open boll
80
*
First open boll
60
*
Peak Bloom
40
*
20
First Flower
* First Square
0
0
30
60
90
Time (Days)
Source: D. Krieg
120
150
Cotton Nutrient Uptake
Compared to Yield
Where – Who
Year
Cotton Type
Lint Yield (lb/A)
N
P2O5
K2O
- - lb per 100 lbs. of lint - GA-Olson
1942
Upland
760
18
8
18
CA - Bassett*
1970
Acala
1,450
10
3
11
Israel - Halevy*
1976
Acala
1,580
14
6
12
AL - Mullins
1990
Upland
880
20
6
18
LA - Breitenbeck
1993
Upland
1,230
14
6
13
AZ – Unruh*
1996
Upland
1,186
15
5
23
1996
Pima
965
21
7
25
6.7
2.9
4.0
Removal in harvested crop
IPNI
* Irrigated tests
Cotton Peak Nutrient
Uptake Rate 60 to 100 Days
After Planting
Location and year
GA
1942
N
3.8
P
0.7
K
2.5
* Irrigated tests
Source: Mullins and Burmester, 1990
*CA
*Israel
1970
1976
lb/A per day
1.8
0.3
3.0
4.1
0.8
4.1
AL
1990
3.5
0.6
3.1
P Functions of Phosphorus
in Cotton Production
• Essential for vigorous root and
shoot growth
• Promotes early boll development
and hastens maturity
• Helps overcome the effects of
compaction
• Increases water use efficiency
• Necessary for energy storage and
transfer in plants
• A two-bale crop can take up more
than 50 lb P2O5/A
P Uptake by Modern Cotton
Varieties – 880 lb/A
20
Shoots
Leaves
Burs
Seed
P, lb/A
15
10
Averaged across four varieties
Deltapine 90, Stoneville 825, Coker 315, Paymaster 145
5
0
0
21
35
49
63
77
91
Days after planting
Source: Mullins & Burmester, 1990
105 119
P Compartmentation by
Developing Cotton Bolls
P, mg
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Mature boll oven-dry weight ~ 6.5 grams
Seed
Bur (x 2)
Fiber (x 2)
0
10
14
21
28
35
Days After Pollination
Source: Leffler, H.R. 1986
42
49
56
Reasons to Build
Soil Test P
• Increase root growth for efficient uptake of other
nutrients
• Capitalize on “good weather” years
• Minimize risk associated with “bad weather” years
• Raise soil productivity
• Increase yield potential of all crops in the rotation
• Improve grower profit potential
• Rules of thumb for raising soil test P
– 6 to 14 lb P2O5 needed above crop removal to build soil test P
by 1 lb/A on sandy loam to silt loam soils
Probability of a
Phosphorus Response . . .
An Example
Soil test P,
category
Very low
Low
Medium
High
Very high
Probability of
response
> 80%
60-80%
40-60%
20-40%
< 20%
Category definitions vary among laboratories
Cotton Relative Yield
Response to Mehlich 3 Soil
Test P in North Carolina
Relative yield, %
120
100
80
60
40
Soil test for 95%
of maximum yield
20
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 to 8-inch Mehlich 3-P, ppm
Source: Cox, F.R. and J.S. Barnes, 2002
80
90
100
6-Year Average Cotton
Response to P Rate and
Tillage in Tennessee
Lint, lb/A
1,200
Disk Till
No-till
1,100
Low initial soil P
1,000
900
800
700
0
40
80
lb P2O5/A per year
Source: Howard & others, 2001
120
Soil P Levels After 3 Years
of P Fertilization on loessial
Silt Loam Soil in Tennessee
Mehlich 1 P, ppm at 0 to 6 in. depth
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Tillage & Year
DT-1997
DT-1998
DT-1999
NT-1997
NT-1998
NT-1999
DT=Disk-till
NT=No-till
5
0
0
40
80
lb P2O5/A per year
Source: Howard & others, 2001
120
P Placement Options
•
•
•
•
•
Broadcast
Banded 2 x 2 (2 in. to the side and 2 in. below seed)
Surface banded
Deep banded
In-furrow with the seed (rates are limited due to
possible seedling damage and toxicity)
– Rates of 11-37-0 greater than 2.5 to 2.8 gal/A have been
shown to reduce cotton stands and yield, and rates greater
than 1.5 gal/A are not recommended (Burris et. al., 1992)
Effects of P Placement on
Relative Cotton Yield
100
90
80
70
60
50
Low P soil
(29 lb/A extractable P)
High P soil
(126 lb/A extractable P)
Relative yield, %
Relative yield, %
a
a
a
ab
a
b
0
d
15
15
e
/se
w
e
se
w/
d&
b
35
50
d
an
n
ba
ed
3
d,
de
x2
.
in.
.
di
o
nr
w
t&
ixe
as
m
c
d
50
oa
r
b
50
c
dis
ed
100
90
80
70
60
50
No significant differences
0
ed
15
se
w/
1
e
/se
w
5
d&
35
50
n
ba
n
ba
d
d
de
,
ed
3x
n.
2i
..
i
0m
Source: Nelson & others, 1949. See notes for application methods
ro
xe
5
lb P2O5/A applied and placement method
n
di
50
o
br
ad
d
w
t&
s
ca
ce
dis
Effects of P Placement on
Relative Cotton Root
Length (Laboratory study)
Low P Dewey soil (CEC=10)
14 lb/A (7 ppm) Mehlich 1-P
High P Marvyn soil (CEC=5)
88 lb/A (44 ppm) Mehlich 1-P
Relative total root length %
Relative total root length, %
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
100
a
a
a
a
90
80
70
No significant differences
60
b
0
50
12.5
25
50
Percent of soil volume fertilized
100
0
12.5
25
Percent of soil volume fertilized
Applied P per pot was identical within a soil
Source: Mullins, 1993
50
100
Effects of P Placement on
Percent of Roots in Fertilized
Soil (Laboratory study)
Low P Dewey soil (CEC=10)
(14 lb/A Mehlich 1-P)
High P Marvyn soil (CEC=5)
(88 lb/A Mehlich 1-P)
% of roots in P-treated volume
% of roots in P-treated volume
100
100
80
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
0
0
0
12.5
25
50
Percent of soil volume fertilized
100
0
12.5
25
Percent of soil volume fertilized
Applied P per pot was identical within a soil
Source: Mullins, 1993
50
100
Effect of In-furrow
Starter Fertilizer
on Cotton Yield (Louisiana)
In-furrow
Starter Difference
lint yield, lb/A
Year
Soil texture
Check
1990
1991
1991
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Clay
Silt loam
1255
1184
1503
878
922
999
515
734
1400
1191
1586
889
911
1040
697
837
145*
7
83*
11
-11
41
182*
103*
1993
Silt loam
941
1174
233*
992
1081
88
Average
* Differences were significant a the 0.05 level of probability.
11-37-0 starter was applied at the rate of 1.5 gal/A.
All soils tested high to very high in P.
Source: Kovar et. al., 1993.
Effect of Surface Banded
Starter Fertilizer on
Cotton Yield (Louisiana)
Year
1990
1990
1990
1991
1991
1992
1992
1993
Average
Soil texture Check
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
Silt loam
1,255
823
1,045
1,184
949
999
878
860
999
Surface
banded Difference
lint yield, lb/A
1,443
188*
895
72
1,032
-13
1,331
147*
1,073
124*
1,144
145
957
79*
969
109*
1,106
106
* Differences were significant a the 0.05 level of probability.
11-37-0 starter was applied in a 3 inch surface band at the rate of 12 gal/A.
All soils tested high to very high in P.
Source: Kovar et. al., 1993.
Effects of Fertilizer
Placement on Cotton
Seedling Growth (Louisiana)
Check
Source: Kovar et. al., 1993. High soil test P level
12 gal/A 11-37-0
surface banded
1.5 gal/A 11-37-0
in-furrow
Effect of Starter Fertilizer
(11-37-0) on Cotton Root
Length Density (Louisiana)
Check
In-furrow (1.5 gal/A)
Surf. band (12 gal/A)
In-furrow (2.5 gal/A)
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0-4 inch
Seedling
Source: Kovar et. al., 1993. High soil test P level
0-4 inch
4-8 inch
------- Early bloom -------
Effect of P Fertilizer and
Delivery Method on threeyear Average Irrigated
Cotton Yield (Texas)
1000
Lint yield, lb/A
800
600
400
c
818
b
916
Control
Pre-plant
c
824
a
972
200
0
Sidedress
P fertilizer application method
Source: Reiter and Krieg - Means with same letter are not different at the 5% level
LEPA
fertigation
P Fertilizer and Delivery
Method effect on Boll
Number in Irrigated Cotton
(Texas)
60
Bolls per sq. m
50
40
30
53
57
Control
Pre-plant
58
51
20
10
0
Sidedress
P fertilizer application method
Source: Reiter and Krieg
LEPA
fertigation
Effect of P Fertilizer and
Delivery Method on Boll
Size in Irrigated Cotton
(Texas)
1.7
Lint per boll, g
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.54
1.58
Control
Pre-plant
1.6
1.66
1.2
1.1
1
Sidedress
P fertilizer application method
Source: Reiter and Krieg
LEPA
fertigation
Effect of P Fertilizer and
Delivery Method on
Micronaire of Irrigated
Cotton (Texas)
45
40
Premium range 37-42
35
30
39.3
35.6
39.7
36.6
25
20
Control
Pre-plant
Sidedress
P fertilizer application method
Source: Reiter and Krieg
LEPA
fertigation
Conclusions
• Adequate P nutrition is critical in optimizing yield,
quality, and profit in cotton production.
• While placement of P fertilizer is not as important as in
the production of many other crops, banding P can
increase yields in some situations (e.g., reduced or notill, compacted soil conditions).
• Soil test levels should be maintained in the medium to
high range to assure consistent production, and that P
does not limit cotton yield and quality.
International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI)
655 Engineering Drive, Suite 110
Norcross, GA 30092-28326047
Phone: 770-447-0335; Fax: 770-448-0439
E-mail: [email protected]
Reference 06128

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