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The Immune System > Adaptive Immune Response
Adaptive Immune Response
• Antigen-presenting Cells
• Introduction to T and B Lymphocytes
• T and B Lymphocytes in Detail
• Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Mucosal Surfaces
• Immunological Memory
• Primary Centers of the Immune System
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The Immune System > Adaptive Immune Response
Antigen-presenting Cells
• The adaptive immune response is slower to develop than the innate immune
response, but it can act much more powerfully and quickly than the innate
immune response against pathogens that it has seen before.
• B and T cells are lymphocytes, or white blood cells, which are able to recognize
antigens that distinguish "self" from "other" in the body.
• B and T cells that recognize "self" antigens are destroyed before they can mature;
this helps to prevent the immune system from attacking its own body.
T cell by SEM
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The Immune System > Adaptive Immune Response
Introduction to T and B Lymphocytes
• Antigens are proteins and other macromolecules that bind to a specific antibody
and are used by the immune system to recognize pathogens.
• B cells express receptors (BCRs) on their membrane which contain antibodies;
these antibodies allow B cells to detect pathogens and release further antibodies
to fight the infection.
• Antibodies fight infections in three ways: they mark pathogens for destruction by
phagocytic cells in a process known as opsonization, they coat key sites on
pathogens necessary for infection, and they induce the complement cascade to
occur against antibody-bound pathogens.
• Once the adaptive immune response has encountered an antigen, B cells will
B cell receptors
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divide to produce plasma cells, which rapidly secrete antibodies to that antigen in
a process called active immunity.
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The Immune System > Adaptive Immune Response
T and B Lymphocytes in Detail
• Once a pathogen enters a cell, it can no longer be detected by the humoral
immune response; instead, the cell-mediated immune response must take over to
kill the infected cell before it can allow the virus or bacteria to replicate and
spread.
• T cells recognize infected cells by interacting with antigen present on their MHC II
molecules; before a T cell can do so, it must be activated via interaction with an
antigen presenting cell, or APC.
• Once a cytotoxic T cell (TC) is activated, it will clone itself, producing many TC
cells with the correct receptors; some portion of the cells are active and will help
destroy infected cells, while others are inactive memory cells that will create more
APCs, MHCs and lymphocytes
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active TC cells if the infection returns.
• Helper T cells (TH cells) also aid in cell-mediated immunity by releasing signaling
molecules known as cytokines which can recruit natural killer cells and
phagocytes to destroy infected cells and further activate T C cells; they do not
directly destroy pathogens.
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The Immune System > Adaptive Immune Response
Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Mucosal Surfaces
• The lymphatic system contains lymph: a fluid that bathes tissues and organs and
contains white blood cells (not red blood cells).
• Once B and T cells mature, the majority of them enter the lymphatic system,
where they are stored in lymph nodes until needed.
• Lymph nodes also store dendritic cells and macrophages; as antigens are filtered
through the lymphatic system, these cells collect them so as to present them to B
and T cells.
• The spleen, which is to blood what lymph nodes are to lymph, filters foreign
substances and antibody-complexed pathogens from the blood.
Lymphatic system
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The Immune System > Adaptive Immune Response
Immunological Memory
• During the adaptive immune response to a pathogen that the body has not
previously encountered (the primary immune response), the level of plasma cells
that secrete antibodies to the new pathogen and T cells that recognize the
pathogen will increase at a modest pace.
• If a pathogen is re-encountered, memory B and T cells can immediately
differentiate into plasma cells and cytotoxic T cells without input from APCs or T H
cells; this secondary immune response occurs much more rapidly than the
primary immune response.
• Vaccination can be used to generate a mild, primary immune response against an
inactivated pathogen, which will allow the secondary immune response to function
Formation of memory B cells and plasma cells
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the first time the immune system encounters the actual pathogen.
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The Immune System > Adaptive Immune Response
Primary Centers of the Immune System
• Mucosal surfaces are those that are in contact with air, but, unlike the skin, allow
fluid to flow in and out of them.
• Due to the location of mucosal surfaces, they are often the first sites to encounter
new antigens.
• The immune system has to be regulated to prevent wasteful, unnecessary
responses to harmless substances and, more importantly, so that it does not
attack "self".
• Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue, or MALT, is involved in immune tolerance to
harmless, foreign antigens.
MALT tissue
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Appendix
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The Immune System
Key terms
• antibody a protein produced by B-lymphocytes that binds to a specific antigen
• antigen a substance that binds to a specific antibody; may cause an immune response
• B cell a lymphocyte, developed in the bursa of birds and the bone marrow of other animals, that produces antibodies and is
responsible for the immune system
• cytokine any of various small regulatory proteins that regulate the cells of the immune system; they are released upon binding
of PRRs to PAMPS
• cytotoxic T cell a subgroup of lymphocytes (white blood cells) that are capable of inducing death to infected somatic or tumor
cells; part of cell-mediated immunity
• effector cell a plasma B cell or cytotoxic T cell, which are the main types of cells responsible for the humoral and cellular
immune responses, respectively
• lymph a colorless, watery, bodily fluid carried by the lymphatic system, consisting mainly of white blood cells
• MHC an acronym for major histocompatibility complex; these extracellular protein receptors display antigens derived from
extracellular (class I) or intracellular (class II) proteins and other biomolecules
• mucous membrane a membrane which secretes mucus; it forms the lining of body passages that contact the air, such as the
respiratory and genitourinary tracts including the mouth, nasal passages, vagina and urethra
• opsonize to make (bacteria or other cells) more susceptible to the action of phagocytes by use of opsonins
• self-antigen antigens (substances that bind to antibodies) that are usually well tolerated by the immune system, which has been
educated to non-reactivity against the structures
• T cell a lymphocyte, from the thymus, that can recognize specific antigens and can activate or deactivate other immune cells
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The Immune System
• vaccination inoculation in order to protect against a particular disease or strain of disease; causes a primary immune response
without illness, allowing the secondary response to destroy subsequent infection
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The Immune System
T cell by SEM
This scanning electron micrograph shows a T lymphocyte.T and B cells are indistinguishable by light microscopy, but can be differentiated
experimentally by probing their surface receptors.
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The Immune System
T cell receptors (TCRs)
A T cell receptor spans the membrane and projects variable binding regions into the extracellular space to bind processed antigens via MHC molecules
on APCs.
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The Immune System
B cell receptors
B cell receptors are embedded in the membranes of B cells and bind a variety of antigens through their variable regions, or antibodies.The signal
transduction region transfers the signal into the cell.
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The Immune System
B cell receptors
B cell receptors, containing antibodies (termed antigen-binding site in the picture) are embedded in the membranes of B cells and bind a variety of
antigens through their variable regions.
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The Immune System
Methods by which antibodies inhibit infection
Antibodies may inhibit infection by (a) preventing the antigen from binding its target, (b) tagging a pathogen for destruction by macrophages or
neutrophils, or (c) activating the complement cascade.
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The Immune System
Helper T cells in the immune response
A helper T cell becomes activated by binding to an antigen presented by an APC via the MHCII receptor, causing it to release cytokines.Depending on
the cytokines released, this activates either the humoral or the cell-mediated immune response.
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The Immune System
APCs, MHCs and lymphocytes
An antigen-presenting cell (APC), such as a macrophage, engulfs a foreign antigen, partially digests it in a lysosome, and then embeds it in an MHC
class II molecule for presentation at the cell surface.Lymphocytes of the adaptive immune response must interact with antigen-embedded MHC class II
molecules to mature into functional immune cells.
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The Immune System
Lymphatic system
(a) Lymphatic vessels carry a clear fluid called lymph throughout the body.The liquid passes through (b) lymph nodes that filter the lymph that enters the
node through afferent vessels, leaving through efferent vessels.Lymph nodes are filled with lymphocytes that purge infecting cells.
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The Immune System
Spleen in the lymphatic system
The spleen functions to immunologically filter the blood and allow for communication between cells corresponding to the innate and adaptive immune
responses.
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The Immune System
Formation of memory B cells and plasma cells
After initially binding an antigen to the B cell receptor (BCR), a B cell internalizes the antigen and presents it on MHC II.A helper T cell recognizes the
MHC II–antigen complex and activates the B cell.As a result, memory B cells and plasma cells are made.
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The Immune System
Primary versus secondary immune response
In the primary response to infection, antibodies are secreted first from plasma cells.Upon re-exposure to the same pathogen, memory cells differentiate
into antibody-secreting plasma cells that output a greater amount of antibody for a longer period of time.
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The Immune System
Vaccination
Vaccines, often delivered by injection into the arm, result in a secondary immune response if the vaccinated individual is later exposed to that pathogen.
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The Immune System
MALT tissue
The topology and function of intestinal MALT is shown.Pathogens are taken up by M cells in the intestinal epithelium and excreted into a pocket formed
by the inner surface of the cell.The pocket contains antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, which engulf the antigens, then present them with
MHC II molecules on the cell surface.The dendritic cells migrate to an underlying tissue called a Peyer's patch.Antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and B
cells aggregate within the Peyer's patch, forming organized lymphoid follicles.There, some T cells and B cells are activated.Other antigen-loaded
dendritic cells migrate through the lymphatic system where they activate B cells, T cells, and plasma cells in the lymph nodes.The activated cells then
return to MALT tissue effector sites.IgA and other antibodies are secreted into the intestinal lumen.
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements best describes the difference
between T cell receptors (TCRs) and B cell receptors (BCRs)?
A) TCRs are present on the inside of cells, whereas BCRs are present on
the outside of cells.
B) TCRs recognize several antigen/MHC combinations, whereas BCRs
only recognize one specific antigen.
C) TCRs contain antibodies, whereas BCRs contain do not.
D) TCRs help initiate the complement cascade, whereas BCRs help
recruit phagocytes.
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements best describes the difference
between T cell receptors (TCRs) and B cell receptors (BCRs)?
A) TCRs are present on the inside of cells, whereas BCRs are present on
the outside of cells.
B) TCRs recognize several antigen/MHC combinations, whereas BCRs
only recognize one specific antigen.
C) TCRs contain antibodies, whereas BCRs contain do not.
D) TCRs help initiate the complement cascade, whereas BCRs help
recruit phagocytes.
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements accurately summarizes the
humoral immune response?
A) NK cells recognize deficiencies in MHC I and release cytokines to
recruit complement
B) TC cells recognize pathogen antibodies presented on MHC I
molecules and induce apoptosis
C) dendritic cells are invaded by pathogens and become APCs
D) antibodies on B cells recognize antigens in the bodily fluids and B
cells proliferate
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements accurately summarizes the
humoral immune response?
A) NK cells recognize deficiencies in MHC I and release cytokines to
recruit complement
B) TC cells recognize pathogen antibodies presented on MHC I
molecules and induce apoptosis
C) dendritic cells are invaded by pathogens and become APCs
D) antibodies on B cells recognize antigens in the bodily fluids and B
cells proliferate
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The Immune System
Which of the following presents antigens, on MHC Class II
molecules, to T cells?
A) eosinophils
B) natural killer cells
C) dendritic cells
D) mast cells
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The Immune System
Which of the following presents antigens, on MHC Class II
molecules, to T cells?
A) eosinophils
B) natural killer cells
C) dendritic cells
D) mast cells
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The Immune System
Which of the following phagocytose cellular debris and
pathogens?
A) mast cells
B) eosinophils
C) natural killer cells
D) macrophages
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The Immune System
Which of the following phagocytose cellular debris and
pathogens?
A) mast cells
B) eosinophils
C) natural killer cells
D) macrophages
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The Immune System
When a B cell encounters the antigen to which it is targeted it
rapidly divides and produces:
A) antigens
B) plasma cells
C) T cells
D) interferons
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The Immune System
When a B cell encounters the antigen to which it is targeted it
rapidly divides and produces:
A) antigens
B) plasma cells
C) T cells
D) interferons
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The Immune System
Which transport mechanism can bring whole cells into a cell?
A) pinocytosis
B) phagocytosis
C) facilitated transport
D) primary active transport
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The Immune System
Which transport mechanism can bring whole cells into a cell?
A) pinocytosis
B) phagocytosis
C) facilitated transport
D) primary active transport
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The Immune System
Which of the following is both a phagocyte and an antigenpresenting cell?
A) NK cell
B) macrophage
C) eosinophil
D) neutrophil
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The Immune System
Which of the following is both a phagocyte and an antigenpresenting cell?
A) NK cell
B) macrophage
C) eosinophil
D) neutrophil
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The Immune System
Which of the following presents antigen to T cells?
A) eosinophils
B) natural killer cells
C) dendritic cells
D) mast cells
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The Immune System
Which of the following presents antigen to T cells?
A) eosinophils
B) natural killer cells
C) dendritic cells
D) mast cells
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes
the major features of the cell-mediated immune response?
Choose the best answer.
A) Cytotoxic T cells recognize antigens on MHC I molecules and induce
apoptosis.
B) Antibodies on B cells recognize antigens on pathogens and secrete
more antibodies.
C) NK cells recognize malformed MHC I complexes and initiate the
complement cascade.
D) Macrophages engulf pathogens and present their antigens on MHC II
molecules.
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes
the major features of the cell-mediated immune response?
Choose the best answer.
A) Cytotoxic T cells recognize antigens on MHC I molecules and induce
apoptosis.
B) Antibodies on B cells recognize antigens on pathogens and secrete
more antibodies.
C) NK cells recognize malformed MHC I complexes and initiate the
complement cascade.
D) Macrophages engulf pathogens and present their antigens on MHC II
molecules.
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The Immune System
Which of the following stimulate a response by B cells and T
cells?
A) antibodies
B) antigens
C) plasma
D) platelets
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The Immune System
Which of the following stimulate a response by B cells and T
cells?
A) antibodies
B) antigens
C) plasma
D) platelets
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The Immune System
Which of the following cells related to the immune system are
housed in the lymphatic system?
A) B and T cells
B) red blood cells
C) epithelial cells
D) glial cells
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The Immune System
Which of the following cells related to the immune system are
housed in the lymphatic system?
A) B and T cells
B) red blood cells
C) epithelial cells
D) glial cells
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements applies to the role of memory
cells?
A) they provide an accelerated immune response upon re-exposure
B) they produce cyclosporine
C) they cannot be reactivated
D) they are responsible for passive immunity
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The Immune System
Which of the following statements applies to the role of memory
cells?
A) they provide an accelerated immune response upon re-exposure
B) they produce cyclosporine
C) they cannot be reactivated
D) they are responsible for passive immunity
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The Immune System
While of the following statements correctly describes what
happens to B or T cells that are never re-exposed to the antigen
that helped create them.
A) they decrease in number but never completely die off
B) they eventually revert back to naive cells able to recognize different
antigens
C) they transform into red blood cells
D) they gradually die off, never functioning as effector cells
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The Immune System
While of the following statements correctly describes what
happens to B or T cells that are never re-exposed to the antigen
that helped create them.
A) they decrease in number but never completely die off
B) they eventually revert back to naive cells able to recognize different
antigens
C) they transform into red blood cells
D) they gradually die off, never functioning as effector cells
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The Immune System
Which of the following is most active in presenting harmless
antigens to the immune system to induce immune tolerance?
A) mucosal surfaces
B) lymph nodes
C) the spleen
D) the kidneys
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The Immune System
Which of the following is most active in presenting harmless
antigens to the immune system to induce immune tolerance?
A) mucosal surfaces
B) lymph nodes
C) the spleen
D) the kidneys
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The Immune System
What is the process by which T and B lymphocytes that recognize
self antigens are deleted before they develop into fully
immunocompetent cells?
A) T and B cell removal
B) antigen dependance
C) lymphocyte stimulation
D) immune tolerance
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The Immune System
What is the process by which T and B lymphocytes that recognize
self antigens are deleted before they develop into fully
immunocompetent cells?
A) T and B cell removal
B) antigen dependance
C) lymphocyte stimulation
D) immune tolerance
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The Immune System
Attribution
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immunity." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m47434/latest/
• Wikipedia. "Major histocompatibility complex." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_histocompatibility_complex
• Wikipedia. "MHC class II." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MHC_class_II
• Wiktionary. "T cell." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/T+cell
• Wiktionary. "B cell." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/B+cell
• Wiktionary. "antigen." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/antigen
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immune Response." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44821/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immunity." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m47434/latest/
• Wiktionary. "opsonize." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/opsonize
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/mhc
• Wiktionary. "antibody." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/antibody
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immunity." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m47434/latest/
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immune Response." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44821/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "cytokine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cytokine
• Wiktionary. "cytotoxic T cell." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cytotoxic+T+cell
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immunity." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m47434/latest/
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immune Response." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44821/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
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The Immune System
• Wiktionary. "lymph." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/lymph
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immunity." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m47434/latest/
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immune Response." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44821/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/effector-cell
• Wiktionary. "vaccination." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/vaccination
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immunity." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m47434/latest/
• Connexions. "Adaptive Immune Response." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44821/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/self-antigen
• Wiktionary. "mucous membrane." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mucous+membrane
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