Cold war: Conflict between US and SU

Report
** neither side confronted each other on a battle field
COLD WAR: CONFLICT BETWEEN US AND
SU

Yalta- FDR, Churchill, Stalin

Potsdam- Truman, Clement, Stalin
UNITED NATIONS
50 nations,
 General assembly
 Responsible for peace keeping
 “Big 5”

Soviets control of Eastern Europe
 Satellite nation: reflect views or dominated by
USSR (communist)
 East Germany, Czech, Hungary, Romania,
Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland

IRON CURTAIN

Barrier separating politics between Eastern
Europe and Western Europe
 Containment:
Stop the spread of communism
TRUMAN DOCTRINE
Turkey and Greece
 Providing aid to any country in the world
fighting against communism

MARSHALL PLAN
Secretary of state George Marshall
 $17 billion to rebuild Europe
 Aid against hunger, poverty, DESPARATION,
CHAOS
 Make sure economy is stable so communists
would not have an opportunity to take over

GERMANY REUNIFICATION P. 605
Western Germany (four zones)
 Eastern German (one zone)


Yalta, Potsdam conferences
BERLIN AIRLIFT
No written agreement to have access to East
Berlin
 SU blocked East Berlin
 Enough supplies for 5 weeks
 Berlin Airlif

NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 Western Europe
 Military alliance
 Soviet response- Warsaw Pact (countries listed
on page 1)

CHINA
Chiang Kai-Shek vs Mao Zedong
 US supports by sending $2 billion to China
 Nationalists weak military and corrupt government
 Peasants drawn to communist side
 Shek over run by communist party
 Flees to Taiwan
 China now communist
 Est of People’s Republic of China
 Containment failed!

KOREA
Japan took over in 1910 and left in 1945
 North of the 38th parallel belong to the soviets
 Two zones (one communist and one democratic)
 1948, Republic of Korea (South Korea) occupied
by the US
 South Korea led by Syngman Rhee based in Seoul
 1950- NK invaded SK
 UN- assist NK

16 nations sent aid to SK- 90% US troops led
by General Douglas MacArthur
 NK control in SK up to Pusan Peninsula
 Counteroffensive by China- led by Mao, able to
get Seoul
 China now in the war on NK side
 MacArthur wanted to invade and blockade
China

TRUMAN FEARS SOVIET INTERVENTION
China had a mutual pact with Soviets
 Attacking China would set off WWIII
 MacArthur: Unconditional surrender of NK
 MacArthur criticism; MacArthur fired
 Summer 1951, Korean War- stalemate
 Congress did not declare war, Truman sent
troops along with the UN

KOREA CEASE FIRE
Soviets pushed for seize fire June 23, 1951
 Truce talks July 1951
 July 1953, armistice signed
 Effects of war:

54,000 US soldiers died
 $67 billion

 Unsuccessful
war, public opinion look down on
Democrat Party (Truman)
KOREA TODAY
NORTH KOREA AND SOUTH KOREA
North Korea- Communist
Kim Jong-Un
South Korea- Democratic
Park Geun-hye
TRUMAN NUCLEAR ARMS RACE
Nuclear arms race began with Truman
 US creates the first atomic bomb
 Soviets detonates atomic bomb in 1947
 Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) 67x what was
dropped on Hiroshima- detonated in September
1,1952
 Soviets sucessfully create H-bomb in 1953

NUCLEAR ARMS RACE
Truman Presidency- US vs SU who can have the
most deadliest nuclear weapon
 Soviets successful detonate atomic bomb in 1947
 US responds with Hydrogen bomb (67x power of
bomb dropped on Hiroshima)
 Who will be the first to produce Hydrogen bomb??
 November 1, 1952 US won the race
 Less than a year later, Soviets will produce H-bomb

DWIGHT EISENHOWER- REPUBLICAN
1953-1961
 34th president
 Graduated from West Point
 Five-Star general in WWII
 First supreme commander NATO
 Army Chief of Staff under Truman

EISENHOWER
1953 president
 Secretary of State John Foster Dulles- moral
crusade against communists

 Use
nuclear weapons and force to contain
communism
 Go to the edge of an all out war (threat of
nuclear warfare)- BRINKMANSHIP
 Expanded Air Force (the ones to deliver the
bombs)
EISENHOWER AND BRINKMANSHIP
Eisenhower’s containment foreign policy:
Brinkmanship (go to the edge of an all out war;
use the threat of nuclear attack)
 US trimmed its army and navy and expanded its
air force and build up nuclear weapons

AIR RAID DRILLS
Common under Eisenhower’s administration
 School drills
 Families built underground fallout shelters
 Fear of nuclear war
 “Duck and Cover”


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q899D06W53k
GENEVA SUMMIT
July 1955, Eisenhower calls a meeting with
Stalin
 “open skies”- fly against each other’s territory
to make sure no surprise attacks
 Step toward peace?

SUEZ CRISIS









1955
GB and US agreed to help Egypt finance construction of
a dam at Aswan on the Nile River
Gamal Abdel-Nasser- head of Egypt’s gov
Relations with SU and US
US found out-Dulles removed loan offer
Nasser nationalized Suez Canal (owned by Frace and
GB)
Nasser would not let ships bound to Israel pass through
GB, France and Israel sent in troops to Med end of canal
UN stepped in- Egypt control of canal
MIDDLE EAST
Middle east- the “neutral” countries in between
Western (democratic) and Eastern (communist)
countries
 Most countries did not favor Israel, so sided
with Egypt in Suez Crisis
 Eisenhower issued his doctrine (Eisenhower
Doctrine) in January 1957: US would defend
the Middle East against an attack by an
communist country.

HUNGARY
Dominated by SU after WWII
 1956- wanted to be democratic
 Imre Nagy- Hungarian leader
 Read Hungarian Uprising on page 625
 How does this incident compare to what is
happening in Ukraine?

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2014/03/14
/russia-says-it-has-right-to-intervene-afterdeadly-violence-in-ukraine/
CIA AND COVERT ACTIONS
Eisenhower’s administration relied upon
National Security Council and the Central
Intelligence Agency
 Spies to gather information abroad
 Covert (secret) operations to weaken or
overthrow governments that the US thought
were a threat to democracy
 Head of CIA- Allen Dulles (sec of state’s
brother)

STALIN DIES
1953 Stalin died from heart attack
 Nikita Khruschev

 “communism
 Space
take over the world peacefully”
Race
 October,
1957- Soviets launched Sputnik, world’s first
satellite to travel around the earth.
 Triumph in Soviet technology
 Americans shocked, poured money into space programs,
NASA
 American public worried- long range ballistic missiles
now able to reach US
US first attempt to launch satellite, embarrassing
 January 1958, US launch first satellite successfully

Sputnik
Not Sputnik
RESPONSE TO SPUTNIK
NASA- National Aeronautics and Space
Administration
 NDEA- National Defense Education Act

 response
to the Soviet launch of Sputnik
 To help ensure that highly trained individuals would
be available to help America compete with the
Soviet Union
 improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign
language instruction
DOMINO THEORY- THOUGHT THROUGH MUCH OF
COLD WAR
a communist victory in one nation would
quickly lead to a chain reaction of communist
takeovers in neighboring states
 This theory was later used in Southeast Asia for
support of South Vietnam

EISENHOWER’S FAREWELL ADDRESS TO
NATION
Military Industrial Complex
 Do not mix close partnership with industry
(business) and military

 Business
will start to determine military actions
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8y06NSBBRtY
RADIO FREE EUROPE
Another way to combat communism
 Provide news to Eastern Europe or Middle East

 where
the free flow of information is either banned
by government authorities or not fully developed
US government funds the radio station 1949
 Music and uncensored news, broadcasting
 USSR tried to stop and spent more money
trying to stop it than we spent trying to fund it

JOHN F. KENNEDY
Navy- south pacific in WWII
 Senate
 Sep 26, 1960 Kennedy-Nixon TV Debate
 youth and charm, marks a turning point in the
election
 1960- 35th president
 1960-1963 presidency
 Assassinated

KENNEDY’S FOREIGN POLICY
Flexible response- redefine the nation’s nuclear
strategy
 Opposite from Eisenhower’s mass
retaliation/brinkmanship policy
 The US would have more ways to handle
aggressions rather than nuclear weapons

 More
money in ground troops
FLEXIBLE RESPONSE

Increase defense spending in order to boost
conventional military forces- nonnuclear
 Troops,
ships, and artillery
 Elite branch of the army: Special Forces or Green
Berets
 US now able to fight limited wars while maintaining
nuclear balance of power (avoid suicide)
U.S. Budget, 1950-2010
Percentage Spent on Defense
1950
1960
32%
52%
2010
2000
17%
19%
COVERT OPERATIONS IN CUBA
Batista Cuban leader
 US mafia owned most of Cuban businesses
 Castro- young, lawyer (personally disgusted with
Cuba’s situation)


Red-light districts, casinos, restaurants, etc
Cuban Revolution 1953-1959
 US helped Castro because of promise of
Democracy

CASTRO
Seized three American and British refineries
 Broke up commercial lands used for sugar
plantations- (US made profits from this)

 Wanted
America’s strong hold on Cuba out
US trade embargo (sugar)
 Cuba looks towards Soviets for assistance
 Some Cubans saw Castro as a dictator

 10%
exiles- Miami, Fl

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