Anti-TNF, Immunosuppression and Renal Disease: Approaches in TB Dr Heather Milburn Consultant Respiratory Physician Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust READER IN Respiratory Medicine KING’S College London Relative risk of developing active TB (Nice Guidelines, 2006/2011) Clinical Condition Relative Risk Diabetes mellitus Solid organ transplantation 2-4 20-74 Silicosis 30 Chronic renal failure/haemodialysis 10-25.3 Gastrectomy Contact smear +ve TB 2.5 5-10 HIV 10 Anti-TNF therapy Corticosteroids, MMF, tacrolimus, ciclosporin, aza, mtx, rituximab….. 5 ? Difficulties in Management of TB & LTBI in Renal Disease • Risk: ethinic minorities inc risk both TB & CKD • Screening: when? How? skin anergy; IGRA tests – evaluation. • Diagnosis: unusual presentations • Treatment: timing; dosage; drug interactions. Renal Disease – TB Risk • Chronic Kidney Disease - Acqu’d i/d state - Functional abnorm N, T&B lympho, monos, NK cells; vitamin D deficiency - Risk 31.4 in China, ?UK • Maintenance Haemodialysis - Risk 10-25x (NICE 2006) • Transplant - Risk 100-400x (Europe & USA; ISC ?higher) - NICE 2006 overall relative risk x37 Incidence of TB - CKD • TB incidence UK 15/100,000; London 44.4/100,000 • Dialysis 1,187/100,000 (Moore et al 2002) No. of cases/100,000 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 CAPD Haemodialysis Functioning Transplant Total Transplants General UK Population London 0 Palchaudhuri et al 2011 Uraemic Milieu Intracellular Ca++ Zn deficiency Malnutrition – low albumin Fe overload Uraemic toxins – guanidines, polyamines neutrophil Myeloperoxidase O2 radicals bacterial killing bacterial virulence Uraemic milieu Renal replacement therapy Vit D deficiency C’ activation IL1b IL6 Monocyte/APC Chronic inflammation TNFa IL12 costimulation IL6/IL10 imbalance T cell IL6 TH1 differentiation TH2 IL4 IFNg Cellular immune response B cell Humoral immune response Renal Disease – LTBI & Prophylaxis • Who? - All uraemic patients? - Only those with particular risk? • When? - CKD? - On dialysis? - Pre-transplant? - Post-transplant? • How? - TST? - IGRA? • What? - 6/12 H - 3/12 RH (drug interactions) - 4-6/12 R (drug interactions) Renal Disease – Method of Screening • Pre-transplant • TST – Anergy 30-50% Drugs – pred, aza, 6-MCP, mtx, cycloph, mycophenolate, ciclosp, tacrolimus • Interferon-g tests – evaluation? • CXR Bumbacea et al. Eur Respir J 2012;40:990-1013 IGRAs in Immunosuppression CKD Systematic Review of 30 studies (47): • Predominantly HD • Countries with low-mod TB prevalence • 9 compared IGRAs with TST, 17 TST only, 4 other tests. • cf +ve TST, +ve ELISA more strongly assoc with radiol evidence past TB (OR 4.29, CI 1.83-10.3, p=0.001) and contact with aTB (OR 3.36, CI 1.61-7.01, p=0.001) • cf –ve TST, -ve ELISA more strongly assoc with BCG (OR 0.30, CI 0.14-0.63, p=0.002) • Insufficient data to compare ELISPOT with TST or ELISA • ELISA more strongly assoc with risk factors for LTBI in CKD than TST (Rogerson et al., Am J Kidney Dis 2013) Study design Data set consisting of • Mendel Mantoux skin-test • T-SPOT.TB • QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Clinical data • TB risk factors • Level of immunosuppression TBNET Percentage of positive results Similar percentages of positive test results in all assays CRF 40 30 26.3% 26.7% 27.1% all <5 years of dialysis >5 years of dialysis 20 10 0 TBNET Patients with chronic renal failure Percentage of positive results Similar percentages of positive test results in all assays CRF 40 30 all <5 years of dialysis >5 years of dialysis 20 10 TBNET 0 Patients with chronic renal failure Agreement between the tests K=0.3 2 neg pos K=0.2 8 neg CRF pos neg 158 (60.3%) 35 (13.4%) neg 155 (59.2%) 38 (14.5%) pos 34 (13.0%) 35 (13.4%) pos 36 (13.7%) 33 (12.6%) K=0.5 2 neg pos TBNET neg 167 (63.7%) 25 (9.5%) pos 24 (9.2%) 46 (17.6%) CRF No association with TB exposure crude TBNET age, sex, duration of dialysis OR 95% CI OR 95% CI 1.2 0.6-2.2 1.1 0.6-2.3 1.3 0.7-2.3 1.2 0.6-2.3 1.2 0.6-2.5 1.3 0.6-2.6 BTS Recommendations 2010 • Screening for LTBI - Method: Use IGRA with or without TST • Who to screen: Pre-transplant Contacts • Chemoprophylaxis: 6H if post transplant 3RH if pre transplant 4R if pre transplant Drug Recommendations: Chemoprophylaxis • H & R - normal doses in CKD. • Long term use of isoniazid is not recommended. • No evidence for prolonged chemoprophylaxis with any of above. • No evidence for lower doses - lower peak levels and drug resistance. Guidelines for management of TB & LTBI in CKD;Thorax 2010:65:559-70 Active TB Routine Assessment: • History – prev TB, Rx & time, recent contact • Chronic cough, wt loss, sweats – CXR • Sputum, ind sputum, FOB, EBUS Presentation: • Not always classic • Extra pulmonary common – 30-50%; peritoneal Investigation: • Active TB suspected –fluid or tissue for culture & sensitivity testing; histology • Active pulm disease – isolate in negative pressure room • Notify • INVOLVE CHEST PHYSICIANS 40yr old white M Peritoneal dialysis 1yr Abdom pain, Cloudy dialysate, No cough T 38, WCC 5.4, N 4.4, Ly 0.8, CXR unremarkable Blood cultures –ve, MC&S of dialysate –ve From Latvia, UK 1yr Antibiotics 1/52 No improvement Further specimens neg Change antibiotics No improvement Abdo US – nodes and omental thickening Biopsy – granulomata, no AFB seen, grew H resistant TB Pharmacokinetics & Toxicity of first-line drugs in CKD • H: metabolised by liver - neurotoxicity – give pyridoxine - neuropsychiatric disturbance - ototoxicity – rare and can occur in CKD • R: metabolised by liver - no signif increase tox • Z: metabolised by liver - uric acid retention – gout • E: 80% excreted unchanged by kidneys - ocular toxicity dose dependent - increased efficacy normal dose less often Treatment aTB 47yr old Black African, HD, sm+ PTB, dry wt 68kg Management? Not on open HD unit! Medication: Rifater 6 daily Ethambutol 600mg daily Renal Disease - Treatment CKD Stage 1 normal function but structural abnormality CKD Stage 2 Cr Cl 60-90mls/min; Stage 3 30-60mls/min; Stage 4 15-30mls.min; Stage 5 <15mls/min. • Dose Do not reduce dose as leads to lower peak dose - Iso, Rif, – normal doses; Give piridoxine - PZA & E – normal doses for stages 1-3; increased dose intervals in stages 4 & 5 CKD and HD; - Moxi – normal dose stages 1-3 & Tx; not suitable 3x/wk Renal Disease - Treatment • When? - H & R daily or 3x/wk - E & Z daily for stages 1-3, otherwise 3x/week; E peak & trough levels - Z signif removed by dialysis - 4-6hrs before haemodialysis or immediately after - Moxi daily 1-3 & Tx; not 3x/week Peritoneal dialysis? – careful monitoring Renal Disease - Treatment • Duration Standard 6/12 for fully sensitive CNS – 1 year • Immunosuppression Rif interferes with most regimens. Monitor levels Double steroid doses MMF, ciclosporin and tacrolimus dosages adjustment need Drug recommendations…active TB • Standard chemotherapy agents, standard duration as per NICE guidelines • Monitor peak & trough levels - Ethambutol and aminoglycosides. Concern about over-and underdosing. • CKD stage 4-5 or haemodialysis – increase dosing intervals to 3 times weekly for E, Z & aminoglycosides. Reduces risk of drug accumulation and toxicity BTS Guidelines Thorax 2010 TB in CKD - Summary • • • • • • • • • High risk of TB – partic non-UK born, EMGs Screen pre-tx & those at particular risk Usual chemoprophylaxis aTB – extra-pulmonary, low index of suspicion Medication – do not reduce dose but inc dosing interval (E, Z, aminoglycosides Stages 4-5 & haemodialysis) Increased risk drug resistance Drug interactions - Rif Drug monitoring VIGILANCE! » BTS Guidelines Thorax 2010 Renal Impairment & TB: Unanswered Questions What are the rates of TB and LTBI in countries with low background rate? • What is the increased risk? How do the IgRA tests perform? When to screen for LTBI? Which patients should receive chemoprophylaxis? Dosages, dose intervals, timing on HD? Pharmacokinetics for patients on peritoneal dialysis?