Chapter 9 Lesson 1

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CHAPTER 9: MENTAL AND
EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS
LESSON 1: MENTAL DISORDERS
What are Mental Disorders?
• Mental disorder- an illness in the mind that can
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effect thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of a
person, preventing him or her from leading a
happy, healthful, and productive life.
54 million people are affected by some form of
mental disorder.
Only one-third of those receive the help they
need.
Why would someone not receive help?
Two Classifications of Mental Disorders:
• Organic Disorders- caused by a physical illness or an
injury that affects the brain.
– Brain tumors, infections, chemical imbalances, exposure to drugs
and toxins, or injuries resulting in brain damage.
• Functional Disorders- have a psychological cause and do
not involve brain damage.
– May result from heredity, stress, emotional conflict, fear,
ineffective coping skills.
– Often are tied to disturbing events in childhood, such as abuse,
serious illness, or traumatic death of a close relative.
– Also tied to recent events such as divorce, economic hardships,
or natural disasters.
TYPES OF MENTAL DISORDERS:
(There are over 300 types!)
ANXIETY DISORDERS:
• A condition in which real or imagined fears
are difficult to control.
• Characterized by chronic fear.
• People arrange their lives to avoid
situations that make them feel anxious or
fearful.
Four Classifications of Anxiety Disorders:
• PHOBIAS:
– A strong and irrational fear of something
specific.
– People with phobias avoid the object at all
costs.
– May make them a prisoner of their own
home.
– Examples
Four Classifications of Anxiety Disorders:
• OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
– Being trapped in a pattern of repeated
thoughts or behaviors.
– Obsessive refers to persistent, recurrent, and
unwanted thoughts that prevent people from
attending to normal daily activities.
– Compulsive refers to repeated, irresistible
behaviors.
– Example
Four Classifications of Anxiety Disorders:
• PANIC DISORDERS:
– Suffer from sudden, unexplained feelings od
terror.
– “Panic attacks” are accompanied by
symptoms such as trembling, a pounding
heart, shortness of breath, or dizziness.
– Attacks may occur at any time or place, but
most are triggered by a particular object,
condition, or situation.
Four Classifications of Anxiety Disorders:
• POST-TRAMATIC STRESS DISORDER:
– A condition that may develop after exposure to a
terrifying event that threatened or caused physical
harm.
– Common after personal assault, rape, disasters, plane
crashes, or military combat.
– Symptoms are flashbacks, nightmares, emotional
numbness, sleeplessness, guilt, and problems with
concentration.
– The disorder may arise weeks or months after the
event that caused it.
TYPES OF MENTAL DISORDERS:
(Continued)
MOOD DISORDERS:
• An illness often with an organic cause,
that involves mood extremes that interfere
with everyday living.
• The emotional swings of mood disorders
are extreme in both intensity and
duration.
(not your normal ups and downs)
2 Types of Mood Disorders:
• Clinical Depression:
– Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or despair last for more than
a few weeks and interfere with daily interests and activities.
– Can affect concentration, sleep, performance at school or work,
or handle everyday decisions and challenges.
– Clinical depression results from a chemical imbalance that a
person cannot overcome without professional help.
– Depression often runs in families and can be biologically based.
• Bipolar Disorder:
– AKA manic-depressive disorder, causes extreme mood changes,
energy levels, and behavior.
– Manic “highs” and depressive “lows”----Figure 9.1 pg 227
TYPES OF MENTAL DISORDERS:
(Continued)
CONDUCT DISORDERS:
• A pattern of behavior in which the rights of others or
basic social rules are violated.
• Lying, theft, aggression, violence, truancy, arson, and
vandalism.
• More common amongst makes than females.
• Although they may act “tough” usually they have low
self-esteem.
• May also have symptoms of other mental disorders
including anxiety, depression, and substance abuse.
• With out treatment they may be unable to the demands
of adulthood and continue to have problems relating to
others, holding a job, and behaving in appropriate ways.
TYPES OF MENTAL DISORDERS:
(Continued)
SCHIZPHRENIA:
• A severe mental disorder in which a person loses contact
with reality.
• Symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, and thought
disorders.
• Caused by a combination of genetic factors and chemical
and structure changes in the brain.
• Sufferers have difficulty understanding between real and
imaginary events.
• A common misconception is that they have split
personalities or are a danger to themselves or others.
• Example
TYPES OF MENTAL DISORDERS:
(Continued)
PERSONALITY DISORDER:
• People with personality disorders think
and behave in ways that make it difficult
for them to get along with others.
• Usually in constant conflict with othersfamily, friends, teachers, coworkers, or
supervisors.
3 Types of Personality Disorders:
• Antisocial Personality Disorder:
– Tend to be irritable, aggressive, impulsive, and violent.
– Many times they are unable to show remorse for their behavior.
• Borderline Personality Disorder:
– Frequently experience a series of troubled relationships.
– Tend to engage in high-risk activities and have poor self esteem.
– Fear abandonment but often lash out violently at those they
need the most.
• Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder:
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Often uncooperative.
Resent being told what to do, yet rely on others’ direction.
Angry over issues of control, they show their anger indirectly.
For example: If they do not want to take part in an activity they
may forget to show up or may arrive late and leave early.

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