Report

Model-free extraction of refractive index from measured optical data A Tool for Refractive InDex Simulation Martina Schmid, Guanchao Yin, Phillip Manley Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Nanooptical concepts for photovoltaics Motivation Thin film optics having to deal with multiple reflections and requiring refractive indices often only rely on optical measurements. Contents • Basic Principles • Transfer Matrix Method • Multilayer Stack • Comparison to Experiment • Advanced Features • Surface Roughness • Inhomogeneous Layers • Effective Medium • User Interface • Outlook 3 Basic Principles – Transfer Matrix Method Basic Principles: Transfer Matrix Method Advanced Features User Interface one wave with positive direction(E+) Superposition of electric field - one wave with negative direction(E ) Propagating through an interface: + − = 1 , 1 , − 2 2 , =-, =+, , + − 1 , = + , , = + ; , are, respectively, the complex amplitude reflection and transmission Fresnel coefficients; is the complex refractive index of the layer Propagating within a layer: + Φ−1 − = o Propagation through mediums at normal incidence o Φ E,i+ E,i− Φ= − 2 Where d is the thickness of medium, ω is the frequency of the propagating light and c is the speed of light 4 Oblique incidence Basic Principles: Transfer Matrix Method Medium i ᆈ Advanced Features User Interface At interface ᆈ Within the layer P polarization: Medium j ᆈ , = , − + 2 = + S polarization: , Φ= − 2 / − = + , = 2 + Fresnel coefficiencts for oblique incidence 5 Coherent Layers – Interference Effects Basic Principles: Multilayer Stack Advanced Features User Interface Validity condition: n ∆ℎ θ << 1 Phase difference between transmission orders: = 2 2 cos When δ = 2 , ∈ ℕ there will be constructive interference in T 6 Incoherent Layers & Substrate Layers Basic Principles: Multilayer Stack Advanced Features User Interface To removed coherency, calculate the Intensity instead of the Electric Field = ∗ = |0 |2 − = |0 |2 phase information ∆ℎ >> 1 Phase relationships between interior reflections is destroyed – therefore there is no interference 7 Multilayer Stack Basic Principles: Multilayer Stack Advanced Features User Interface Coherent Stack • Includes interference • Typical thickness 0 ~ 2000 nm Incoherent Layer • Interference “turned off” • Typical thickness 1 mm • 9 Total layers implemented in RefDex • Combine coherent and incoherent layers in any order • For R,T calculation, d, n and k must be known for all layers 8 Input Spectrum – R and T Basic Principles: Comparison to Experiment Advanced Features User Interface Absorbing Region • Reflection loses coherency peaks • Transmission drops to zero due to absorption Transparent Region • R and T both show coherency peaks • R does not drop to 0 due to reflection from glass substrate 9 Comparison to Experiment Basic Principles: Comparison to Experiment Advanced Features User Interface An example: thin film on substrate 10 Problem of Uniqueness Basic Principles: Comparison to Experiment Advanced Features λ , λ − λ =0 λ , λ − λ =0 , = λ , λ + λ , λ One Physically Meaningful Solution Choose the n, k values which minimise the difference between our model and experiment − λ − λ ′, ′ = ′ ′, ′′ = 0 User Interface Adding these equations together we get a function which takes n and k as input Problems arise because two different n,k input pairs can both equal zero! Many Unphysical Solutions 11 Problem of Uniqueness – Physical Picture Basic Principles: Comparison to Experiment Advanced Features User Interface Spurius solution branches Physically meaningful solution Results need to be interpreted – More on this Later! 12 Determination of optical constants in multiple-layer configuration Basic Principles: Comparison to Experiment Advanced Features User Interface Take the configuration of CIGSe/TCO/glass substrate as an example: G. Yin et al., Influence of substrate and its temperature on the optical constants of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films, accepted for Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 13 Surface Roughness – Effect on R and T Basic Principles Advanced Features: Surface Roughness User Interface Absorbing Region • Reflection Strongly Reduced • Transmission Slightly Reduced Transparent Region • R and T reduced prefferentially at coherency peaks 14 Modified Transfer Matrix Method – Scalar Scattering Theory Basic Principles Advanced Features: Surface Roughness Scalar Scattering Theory Rough Interface ′ , = , −2(2/)2 2 Medium a Modified Fresnel coefficients Medium b User Interface ′ , = , −2(2/)2 2 2 ′ , 2 = , − 2 ′ , 2 = , − ( − )2 /2 ( − )2 /2 • is the interface roughness • Gives us the loss of specular beam intensity due to interface roughness 15 Modified Transfer Matrix Method - Examples Basic Principles Advanced Features: Surface Roughness Determination of optical constants User Interface G. Yin et al.,The effect of surface roughness on the determination of optical constants of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 thin films, J. Appl. Phys., 133, 213510 (2013) σ = 9nm σ = 20nm 16 Inhomogeneous Layers – Effect on R and T Basic Principles Advanced Features: Inhomogeneous Layers User Interface Absorbing Region • Small reduction in R and T Transparent Region • Coherency reduced for both R and T • Transmission strongly reduced 17 Inhomogeneous Layers – Coherent / Incoherent Decomposition Basic Principles Advanced Features: Inhomogeneous Layers User Interface a) b) e) c) d) a) b) c) d) 2D slice through the 3D inhomogeneous film Overlay a rectangular grid The resulting discretised representation of the film Layers containing voids can be modelled incoherently allowing the use of average layer thicknesses e) This reduces the number of transfer matrix calculations to 4 18 Inhomogeneous Layers – Coherent / Incoherent Decomposition Basic Principles Advanced Features: Inhomogeneous Layers , = + User Interface (Same equations for T not shown here) Standard Calculation Replace propagation operator inside inhomogeneous layer with: = =1 , −1 ,−1 (0) 0 , = 0 , = , ≠ 0 ¬ 0 , = 0 = ∗ or 0 = ∗ • Void scattering as from a rough surface. (Slide 13) • Requires statistical knowledge of 3D void distribution as input 19 Inhomogeneous Layers – Modelling Distribution of Voids Basic Principles Advanced Features: Inhomogeneous Layers User Interface • Measurement of real 2D surface used to generate 3D distribution • From 3D distribution we obtain inputs for the RefDex calculation 20 Inhomogeneous Layers – Recalculating n and k Basic Principles Advanced Features: Inhomogeneous Layers User Interface n k data from an inhomogeneous CISe2 film is in good agreement to the n k data from a homogeneous film using the inhomogeneous layer feature. P. Manley et al.,A method for calculating the complex refractive index of inhomogeneous thin films, (submitted) 21 Effective Medium Approximation - Background Basic Principles Advanced Features: Effective Medium = ℎ ℎ + = ℎ ℎ + − ℎ − ℎ = + 2ℎ + 2ℎ ℎ ℎ − − = − ℎ + 2 + 2 User Interface Volume Fraction Approximation • Direct mixing of the two materials via the volume fraction • Does not consider polarisation effects arrising due to mixing Maxwell Garnett Approximation • Based on elementary electrostatics • Assumes spatially separated polarisable particles Bruggeman Approximation • Assumes two kinds of spherical particles randomly arranged. • Spatial separation between particles should be small (i.e. is large) 22 ELLIPSOMETRY MODE = ∆ Type equation here. = ∆ • Ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ simulated by RefDex • Useful for highly absorbing substrates • Currently incompatable with roughness and inhomogeneity advanced features 23 n k Data from Ellipsometry – Example of Mo film 24 Main Interface Basic Principles Advanced Features User Interface 25 Advanced options Basic Principles Advanced Features User Interface 26 Data Extraction Process Basic Principles Advanced Features User Interface • Interactive fitting process • Place nodes which are automatically connected by a smooth function • User selects physically meaningful solutions from multiply degenerate solution space 27 Summary and Outlook RefDex • calculates T, R (n,k) for a multilayer stack = ∆ → extracts n,k from T, R • considers surface roughness • applies to inhomogeneous layers • has also basic features for ellipsometry Type equation here. ... • is freely available from http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/forschung/oe/enma/nanooptix/index_en.html Impulse and Networking Fond: VH-NG-928 28