Fourth Presentation

Report
QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
What Is
Qualitative Research?
is research that addresses business objectives
through techniques that allow the researcher to
provide elaborate(ayrıntılı)interpretations of business
phenomena
without
depending
on
numerical
measurement.
Its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and
new insights. Qualitative research is very widely
applied in practice. There are many research firms
that specialize in qualitative research. Qualitative
research is less structured than most quantitative
approaches.
It
does
not
rely
on
selfresponse
questionnaires containing structured response
formats. Instead, it is more researcherdependent in that the researcher must
extract
meaning
from
unstructured
responses, such as text from a recorded
interview or a collage representing the
meaning of some experience.
The researcher interprets the data to extract
its meaning and converts it to information.
Uses of Qualitative Research
The researcher has many tools available and
the research design should try to match the
best tool to the research objective. Also,
just as a mechanic is probably not an expert
with every tool, each researcher usually has
special expertise with a small number of
tools.
Not every researcher has expertise with
tools that would comprise(içermek) qualitative
research.
The less specific the research objective,
the
more likely
that qualitative
research tools will be appropriate.
Araştırmanın
amacı
ne
kadar
belirginleşirse, nitel araştırma araçları o
kadar uygun olur.
Also, when the emphasis is on a deeper
understanding of motivations or on
developing
novel(yeni)concepts,
qualitative
research
is
very
appropriate.
WHEN QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH BE USED?
1. When it is difficult to develop
specific and actionable problem
statements or research objectives.
For
instance,
if
after
several
interviews with the research client the
researcher
still
can’t
determine
exactly what needs to be measured,
then qualitative research approaches
may help with problem definition.
2. When the research objective is to
develop an understanding of some
phenomena in great detail and in much
depth.
Qualitative research tools are aimed at
discovering the primary themes indicating
human
motivations
and
the
documentation of activities is usually very
complete.
3. When the research objective is to learn how
a phenomena occurs in its natural setting or
to learn how to express some concept in
colloquial terms.
For example, how do consumers actually use
a product? Or, exactly how does the
accounting department process invoices?
4. When some behavior the researcher is
studying is particularly context dependent—
meaning the reasons something is liked or
some behavior is performed depend very
much on the particular situation surrounding
the event.
5. When a fresh approach to studying some
problem is needed. This is particularly the
case when quantitative research has yielded
less than satisfying results.
Qualitative tools can yield unique insights,
many of which may lead the organization in
new directions.
QUALITATIVE VERSUS
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Qualitative
research
can
accomplish
research
objectives
that
quantitative
research cannot. Similarly truthful, but no
more
so,
quantitative
research
can
accomplish
objectives
that
qualitative
research cannot.
The key to successfully using either is to
match the right approach to the right
research context.
Many good research projects combine both qualitative
and quantitative research. For instance, developing
valid survey measures requires first a deep
understanding of the concept to be measured and a
description of the way these ideas are expressed in
everyday language. Both of these are tasks best
suited for qualitative research.
However, validating the measure formally to make
sure it can reliably capture the intended concept will
likely require quantitative research. Also, qualitative
research may be needed to separate symptoms from
problems and then quantitative research can follow up
to test relationships among relevant variables.
Quantitative business research can be
defined as business research that addresses
research
objectives
through
empirical
assessments
that
involve
numerical
measurement and analysis approaches.
Qualitative research is more apt to stand on
its own in the sense that it requires less
interpretation.
For example, quantitative research is quite
appropriate when a research objective
involves a managerial action standard.
There are great differences between the quantitative
and qualitative approaches to studying and
understanding subjects. The arguments between
qualitative and quantitative business researchers
about their relative strengths and weaknesses are of
real practical value. The nature of business decisionmaking encompasses(kapsamak)a vast array of problems
and types of decision-maker.
This means that seeking a singular and uniform
approach to supporting decision-makers by focusing
on one approach is useless. Business decision makers
use both approaches and will continue to need both.
The distinction between qualitative and quantitative
research can be in the context of research designs.
There is a close parallel in the distinctions(fark)between
‘exploratory and conclusive research’ and ‘qualitative
and quantitative research’. There is a parallel, but
the terms are not identical.
There are circumstances where qualitative research
can be used to present detailed descriptions that
cannot be measured in a quantifiable manner, for
example in describing characteristics and styles of
music that may be used in an advertising campaign
or in describing the interplay(etkileşim)of how families go
through the process of choosing, planning and
buying a holiday.
Conversely, there may be circumstances
where quantitative measurements are used
to conclusively answer specific hypotheses or
research questions using descriptive or
experimental techniques.
Beyond answering specific hypotheses or
research questions, there may be sufficient
data to allow data mining or an exploration of
relationships
between
individual
measurements to take place.
Quantitative researchers direct a considerable
amount of activity toward measuring concepts
with scales that either directly or indirectly
provide numeric values. The numeric values
can then be used in statistical computations
and hypothesis testing.
This process involves comparing numbers in
some way. In contrast, qualitative researchers
are more interested in observing, listening,
and interpreting. As such, the researcher is
involved in the research process and in
constructing the results.
For these reasons, qualitative research is
said to be more subjective, meaning that
the
results
are
researcher-dependent.
Different researchers may reach different
conclusions based on the same interview.
In that respect, qualitative research lacks
the ability of different individuals following
the same procedures to produce the same
results or come to the same conclusion.
Qualitative
research
seldom
involves
samples with hundreds of respondents.
Instead, a handful of people are usually the
source of qualitative data. This is perfectly
acceptable in discovery-oriented research.
All ideas would still have to be tested
before adopted.
Does a smaller sample mean that
qualitative research is cheaper than
qualitative? Perhaps not. Although fewer
respondents have to be interviewed, the
greater researcher involvement in both the
data collection and analysis can drive up
the costs of qualitative research.
Qualitative research is most often used
in exploratory designs. Small samples,
interpretive
procedures
that
require
subjective judgments, and the unstructured
interview
format
all
make
traditional
hypotheses testing difficult with qualitative
research.
The best way to conduct a perfect
research is to pursue this path:
To define the problem
and shape a perfect
questionnaire
Qualitative Research
To find the most
probable results and
ncomprehensive
conclusion
Quantitative Research
To interpret the result
deeply and correctly
Qualitative Research
Contrasting Exploratory and
Confirmatory Research
Most
exploratory
research
designs
produce
qualitative data. Exploratory designs do not
usually produce quantitative data, which represent
phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and
meaningful way.
Rather than numbers, the focus of qualitative
research is on stories, visual portrayals(tasvir),
meaningful characterizations, interpretations, and
other expressive descriptions. Often, exploratory
research may be needed to develop the ideas that
lead to research hypotheses.
In some situations the outcome of exploratory
research is a testable research hypothesis.
Confirmatory research then tests these hypotheses
with quantitative data.
The major categories of
qualitative research
1. Phenomenology—originating in philosophy and
psychology
2. Ethnography—originating in anthropology
3. Grounded theory—originating in sociology
4. Case studies—originating in psychology and in
business research
1. Phenomenology
Represents a philosophical approach to studying
human experiences based on the idea that human
experience itself is inherently(doğal olarak)subjective and
determined by the context in which people live.
The phenomenological researcher focuses on how a
person’s behavior is shaped by the relationship he
or she has with the physical environment, objects,
people, and situations. Phenomenological inquiry
seeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret
experiences.
Researchers
with
a
phenomenological
orientation rely largely on conversational
interview
tools.
When
conversational
interviews are face to face, they are recorded
either with video or audiotape
and then
interpreted by the researcher.
(ses
bandı)
The phenomenological interviewer is careful to
avoid asking direct questions when at all
possible. Instead, the research respondent is
asked to tell a story about some experience.
2. Ethnography
Participant observation, a tool of measuring the
ethnographic events, means the researcher
becomes immersed(bulaşmış) within the culture that he
or she is studying and draws data from his or her
observations. A culture can be either a broad
culture, like Turkish culture, or a narrow culture,
like regional culture, Ford owners, or people who
are intrested in football.
Organizational culture would also be relevant for
ethnographic study. At times, researchers have
actually become employees of an organization for
an extended period of time. In doing so, they
become part of the culture.
OBSERVATION IN
ETHNOGRAPHY
Researchers today sometimes ask households for permission
to place video cameras in their home. In doing so, the
ethnographer can study the consumer in a “natural habitat”
and use the observations to test new products, develop new
product ideas, and develop strategies in general.
Ethnographic study can be particularly useful when a certain
culture is comprised of individuals who cannot or will not
verbalize their thoughts and feelings. For instance,
ethnography has advantages for discovering insights among
children since it does not rely largely on their answers to
questions. Instead, the researcher can simply become part of
the environment, allow the children to do what they do
naturally, and record their behavior.
3. Grounded
Theory
(gömülü)
Represents an inductive(tümevarımsal) investigation in which
the researcher poses questions about information
provided by respondents or taken from historical
records. The researcher asks the questions to him or
herself and repeatedly questions the responses to
derive deeper explanations.
Grounded theory is particularly applicable in highly
dynamic situations involving rapid and significant
change. Two key questions asked by the grounded
theory researcher are “What is happening here?”
and “How is it different?”
A theory is inductively developed based on text
analysis of dozens of sales meetings that had been
recorded over the previous five years. By
questioning the events discussed in the sales
interviews and analyzing differences in the
situations that may have led to the discussion, the
researcher is able to develop a theory.
The theory suggests that with an increasing
reliance on e-mail and other technological devices
for communication, the salespeople do not
communicate with each other informally as much
as they did five years previously.
Grounded Theory is trying to extract a theory
from an event or a text
Example for diduction(tümdengelim). Every human dies.
Ahmet is a human, so Ahmed one day will die.
Decreasing the price of any elastic product
will increase the demand. If the price of jewelry,
luxury cars and hotel services increase the demand
of these products will increase.
Example for induction(tümevarım). First and Second World
War have brought disaster. So all wars bring
disaster. Or If we put a piece of ice many times on
a fire, the ice will be melted. Therefore the fire
melts the ice.
Experiment 1 or
observation 1
Experiment 2 or
observation 2
Experiment 3 or
observation 3
Inductive Approach
Result, certainty
or reality
Diductive Approach
Conviction 1
Kanaat
Conviction 2
Conviction 3
4. Case Studies
Case studies simply refer to the documented
history of a particular person, group, organization,
or event. Typically, a case study may describe the
events of a specific company as it faces an
important decision or situation, such as introducing
a new product or dealing with some management
crisis.
Textbook cases typify this kind of case study.
Clinical interviews of managers, employees, or
customers can represent a case study.
Philosophy and
qualitative research
Pozitivizm and
Emprizm
Empiricism A theory of knowledge. A
broad category of the philosophy of
science that locates the source of all
knowledge in experience.
Positivism
A
philosophy
of
language and logic cosistent with an
empiricist philosophy of science.
Paradigm A set of assumptions
consisting
of
agreed
upon
knowledge, criteria of judgement,
problem fields, and ways to consider
them.
Action Research
A process whereby one could construct a
social experiment with the aim of achieving a
certain goal. For example, in the early days of
the Second World War, Lewin conducted a
study, commissioned by US authorities, on the
use of tripe
as part of the regular daily diet
of American families.
(işkembe)
The research question was: ‘To what extent
could American housewives be encouraged to
use tripe rather than beef for family dinners?’
Beef was scarce and was destined
primarily for the troops.
(alın
yazısı)
Action research is a team research process,
facilitated by one or more professional
researchers, linking with decision-makers
and other stakeholders who together wish
to improve particular situations.
Together, the researcher and decisionmakers or stakeholders define the problems
to
be
examined,
generate
relevant
knowledge about the problems, learn and
execute research techniques, take actions,
and interpret the results of actions based
on what they have learned.
Action researchers accept no a priori
limits on the kinds of research
techniques they use.
Surveys, statistical analyses, interviews,
focus groups, ethnographies and life
histories are all acceptable, if the
reason for deploying
them has
been agreed by the action research
collaborators
and if they are used in
a way that does not oppress the
participants.
(yaygınlaştırmak)
(iş arkadaşları)
CLASSIFICATION OF
QUALITATIVE
TECHNIQUES
Qualitative Research Proccedures
Direct
Focus
Groups
Indirect
Depth
Interviews
Association
Techniques
Completion
Techniques
Projective
Techniques
Construction
Techniques
Expressive
Techniques
Focus Group
A focus group interview is an unstructured,
free-flowing interview with a small group of
people, usually between six and ten. Focus
groups are led by a trained moderator who
follows a flexible format encouraging dialogue
among respondents.
Common focus group topics include employee
programs,
employee
satisfaction,
brand
meanings, problems with products, advertising
themes, or new-product concepts.
The group meets at a central location at a designated
time. Participants may range from consumers talking
about hair coloring, petroleum engineers talking
about problems in the “oil patch,” children talking
about toys, politicians talking about any political issue
or employees talking about their jobs.
A moderator begins by providing some opening
statement to broadly steer(yönlendirmek)discussion in the
intended direction. Ideally, discussion topics emerge
at the group’s initiative, not the moderator’s.
Consistent
with
phenomenological
approaches,
moderators should avoid direct questioning unless
absolutely necessary.
Procedure for
Planning and
Conducting Focus
Groups
Advantages and disadvantages of
focus groups
1 Synergy. Putting a group of people together will
produce a wider range of information, insight and
ideas than will individual responses secured
privately.
2 Snowballing. A bandwagon effect often operates in
a group discussion in that one person’s comment
triggers(tetikleyiciler)a chain reaction from the other
respondents. This process facilitates a very creative
process where new ideas can be developed, justified
and critically examined.
3 Stimulation. Usually after a brief introductory
period, the respondents want to express their ideas
and expose their feelings as the general level of
excitement over the topic increases in the group.
4 Security. Because the respondents’ feelings may be similar to
those of other group members, they feel comfortable and are
therefore willing to ‘open up’ and reveal thoughts where they
may have been reluctant if they were on their own.
5 Spontaneity(doğallık). Because respondents are not required to
answer specific questions, their responses can be spontaneous
and unconventional and should therefore provide an accurate
idea of their views.
6 Serendipity(tesadüfilik). Ideas are more likely to arise
unexpectedly in a group than in an individual interview. There
may be issues that the moderator had not thought of. The
dynamics of the group can allow these issues to develop and
be discussed. Group members, to great effect, may clearly and
forcibly ask questions that the moderator may be reluctant to
ask.
7 Specialisation. Because a number of respondents are involved
simultaneously, the use of a highly trained, but expensive,
interviewer is justified.
8 Scientific scrutiny(ayrıntılı inceleme). The group discussion allows close
scrutiny of the data collection process in that observers can witness
the session and it can be recorded for later analysis. Many individuals
can be involved in the validation and interpretation of the collected
data.
9 Structure. The group discussion allows for flexibility in the topics
covered and the depth with which they are treated. The structure
can match the logical structure of issues from the respondents’
perspective as well as the language and expressions they are
comfortable with.
10 Speed. Because a number of individuals are being interviewed at
the same time, data collection and analysis proceed relatively
quickly.
The Disadvanges og Focus
Groups
1 Misjudgement. Focus group results can be more easily
misjudged than the results of other data collection techniques. As
a qualitative technique, focus groups can evolve through a line of
questioning and probing. The specific direction of questioning and
the ultimate interpretation of findings can be susceptible to bias.
2 Moderation. As well as being great fun to moderate, focus
groups can be difficult to moderate. Much depends upon the
‘chemistry’ of the group in terms of how group members get on
with each other and draw ideas and explanations from each other.
Even moderators with many years of experience can get into
difficulty with particular group members who disrupt the
discussion. The quality of the results depends upon how well the
discussion is managed and ultimately on the skills of the
moderator.
3 Messiness(karmaşa). The unstructured nature of the responses
makes coding, analysis and interpretation difficult in
comparison with the structure of quantitative techniques. Focus
group data tend to be messy and need either strong theoretical
support or the discipline of a grounded theory approach to
ensure that decisionmakers can rely upon the analyses and
interpretations.
4 Misrepresentation. Focus group results concentrate on distinct
target groups, describing them and contrasting them to other
groups or types of respondent. Trying to generalise to much
wider groups, in the same manner as with a quantitative survey
based on a representative sample, can be very misleading.
5 Meeting. There are many problems in getting potential
respondents to agree to take part in a focus group discussion.
Even when they have agreed to participate, there are problems
in getting focus group respondents together at the same time.
Running focus groups on the Internet has helped to resolve
these problems to some extent, but for some target groups
even this does not offer a solution.
THE FOCUS GROUP MODERATOR
1. The moderator must be able to develop rapport(dostça
ilişki)with
the group to promote interaction among all
participants. The moderator should be someone who is
really interested in people, who listens carefully to
what others have to say, and who can readily establish
rapport, gain people’s confidence, and make them feel
relaxed and eager to talk
2. The moderator must be a good listener. Careful
listening is especially important because the group
interview’s purpose is to stimulate spontaneous
responses. Without good listening skills, the
moderator may direct the group in an unproductive
direction
3. The moderator must try not to interject(söze karışmak)his
or her own opinions. Good moderators usually say
less rather than more. They can stimulate
productive discussion with generalized follow-ups
such as, “Tell us more about that incident,” or “How
are your experiences similar or different from the
one you just heard?”
4. The moderator must be able to control
discussion without being overbearing(baskıcı). The
moderator’s role is also to focus the discussion on
the areas of concern. When a topic is no longer
generating fresh ideas, the effective moderator
changes the flow of discussion. The moderator
does not give the group total control of the
discussion, but he or she normally has prepared
questions on topics that concern management.
PLANNING THE FOCUS GROUP
OUTLINE
Focus group researchers use a discussion guide
to help control the interview and guide the
discussion into product areas. A discussion
guide includes written introductory comments
informing the group about the focus group
purpose and rules and then outlines topics or
questions to be addressed in the group session.
Thus, the discussion guide serves as the focus
group outline.
Some discussion guides will have only a few
phrases in the entire document. Others may be
more detailed. The amount of content depends
on the nature and experience of the researcher
and the complexity of the topic.
VIDEOCONFERENCING AND FOCUS
GROUPS
With the widespread utilization of videoconferencing,
the number of companies using these systems to
conduct
focus
groups
has
increased.
With
videoconference focus groups, managers can stay
home and watch on television rather than having to
take a trip to a focus group facility. FocusVision
(http://www.focusvision.com/) is a business
research company that provides videoconferencing
equipment and services.
INTERACTIVE MEDIA AND ONLINE
FOCUS GROUPS
Internet applications of qualitative exploratory
research are growing rapidly and involve both formal
and informal applications. Formally, the term online
focus group refers to a qualitative research effort in
which a group of individuals provides unstructured
comments by entering their remarks into an
electronic Internet display board of some type, such
as a chat-room session or in the form of a blog.
Because respondents enter their comments into the
computer, transcripts of verbatim responses are
available immediately after the group session. Online
groups can be quick and costefficient. However,
because there is less personal interaction between
participants, group synergy and snowballing of ideas
may be diminished.
Several companies have established a form
of informal, “continuous” focus group by
establishing an Internet blog for that
purpose.24 We might call this technique a
focus blog when the intention is to mine the
site for business research purposes.
General Motors, American Express, and Lego
all have used ideas harvested from their
focus blogs. When operating, the Lego blog
can
be
found
at
http://legoisfun.blogspot.com.
ONLINE VERSUS
FACE-TO-FACE
FOCUS GROUP
TECHNIQUES
A research company can facilitate a formal online
focus group by setting up a private chat room for
that purpose. Participants in formal and informal
online focus groups feel that their anonymity is very
secure.
Often respondents will say things in this
environment that they would never say otherwise.
For example, a lingerie company was able to get
insights into how it could design sexy products for
larger women.
Online, these women freely discussed what it would
take “to feel better about being naked.” One can
hardly imagine how difficult such a discussion might
be face to face. Increased anonymity can be a
major advantage for a company investigating
sensitive or embarrassing issues.
Because participants do not have to be
together in the same room at a research
facility, the number of participants in online
focus groups can be larger than in traditional
focus groups.
Twentyfive participants or more is not
uncommon for the simultaneous chat-room
format. Participants can be at widely
separated locations since the Internet does
not have geographical restrictions.
Of course, a major disadvantage is that often
the researcher does not exercise as much
control in precisely who participates.
Brain Storming
Traditional brainstorming has been used for several
decades, especially in the context of management
or marketing issues.
Whether formal or informal, the process is the
same: think of as many ideas as you can and say
them out loud; leave the evaluation until later;
build on and combine others’ ideas; be as
imaginative as possible, the wilder the ideas the
better.
The group moderator seeks to nurture an
atmosphere of creativity, tapping into the intuition
of respondents, generating novel ideas and
connections between ideas.
Qualitative Research Proccedures
Direct
Focus
Groups
Indirect
Depth
Interviews
Association
Techniques
Completion
Techniques
Projective
Techniques
Construction
Techniques
Expressive
Techniques
Depth
interviews
Depth interviews are an unstructured
and
direct
way
of
obtaining
information but, unlike focus groups,
depth interviews are conducted on a
one-on one basis.
A
depth
interview
is
an
unstructured,
direct,
personal
interview in which a single respondent
is probed
by an experienced
interviewer to uncover underlying
opinions,
motivations,
beliefs,
attitudes and feelings on a topic.
(tahkik,
sorgulama)
A depth interview may take from 30
minutes to over an hour. It may occur
on a one-off basis or it may unfold
over a number of meetings between
an interviewer and a respondent.
Once the interviewer has gained
access to a potential respondent, the
interviewer
should
begin
by
explaining
the
purpose
of
the
interview,
showing
what
the
respondent will get out of taking part
in the interview and explaining what
the process will be like.
Probing
is of critical importance in
obtaining meaningful responses and
uncovering hidden issues.
(sorgulama)
Probing can be done by asking general
questions such as ‘Why do you say
that?’, ‘That’s interesting, can you tell
me more?’
The interviewer must be alert
to the
issues that they wish to go through, but
also the issues that the respondent is willing
to talk about, and must listen carefully to
and observe which issues fire enthusiasm in
the respondent.
(uyanık, hassas)
The questions and probes they put to
respondents should follow the interest and
logic of the respondent, making them feel
motivated to respond in a manner that suits
them
Depth interview is common in the
field of international relationship. If
this interview is being done with a
political leader or with any opposition
group leader, the titles, subtitles and
the general questions should be well
prepared before the interview.
The questions and probes they put to
respondents should follow the interest and
logic of the respondent, making them feel
motivated to respond in a manner that suits
them.
As with a focus group discussion, the
respondent should feel comfortable and
relaxed.
The interviewer should:
1 Do their utmost(en çok)to develop an empathy
with the respondent.
2 Make sure the respondent is relaxed and
comfortable.
3 Be personable to encourage and motivate
respondents.
4 Note issues that interest the respondent
and develop questions around these issues.
5 Not be happy to accept brief ‘yes’ or ‘no’
answers.
6 Note where respondents have not
explained clearly enough issues that need
probing.
Advantages of
depth interviews
1 Uncover greater depth of insights than
focus groups. This can happen through
concentrating and developing an issue with
the individual.
In the group scenario, interesting and
knowledgeable individuals cannot be solely
concentrated upon.
2 Attribute the responses directly to the
respondent, unlike focus groups where it is
often
difficult
to
determine
which
respondent made a particular response.
3 Result in a free exchange of information
that may not be possible in focus groups
because there is no social pressure to
conform to group response. This makes
them ideally suited to sensitive issues,
especially commercially sensitive issues.
4 Be easier to arrange than the focus group
as there are not so many individuals to
coordinate and the interviewer can travel to
the respondent.
Disadvantages
of depth
interviews
1 The length of the interview, combined with high
costs, means that the number of depth interviews in
a project tends to be few. If few depth interviews
can be managed, the researcher should focus upon
the quality of the whole research experience.
2. The data obtained can be difficult to analyse and
interpret. Many responses may not be taken at
face value; there can be many hidden messages
and interpretations in how respondents express
themselves.
The researcher needs a strong theoretical
awareness to make sense of the data or the
technical means to develop theory if using a
grounded theory approach.
SEMISTRUCTURED
INTERVIEWS
Semi-structured interviews usually come in written
form and ask respondents for short essay responses to
specific open-ended questions. Respondents are free to
write as much or as little as they want.
The questions would be divided into sections, typically,
and within each section, the opening question would be
followed by some probing questions. When these are
performed face to face, there is room for less
structured follow-ups.
The advantages to this approach include an
ability to address more specific issues.
Responses are usually easier to interpret
than other qualitative approaches.
Since the researcher can simply prepare the
questions in writing ahead of time, and if in
writing, the questions are administered
without the presence of an interviewer, semistructured interviews can be relatively costeffective.
SOCIAL
NETWORKING
For many consumers, particularly younger
generations, social networking sites like MySpace,
Second Life, Zebo, and others have become the
primary tool for communicating with friends both
far and near and known and unknown.
Social networking has replaced large volumes of email
and,
many
would
say,
face–to-face
communications as well. While the impact that
social networking will eventually have on society is
an interesting question, what is most relevant to
business research is the large portion of this
information
that
discusses
marketing
and
consumer related information.
Qualitative Research Proccedures
Direct
Focus
Groups
Indirect
Depth
Interviews
Association
Techniques
Completion
Techniques
Projective
Techniques
Construction
Techniques
Expressive
Techniques
PROJECTIVE
TECHNIQUES
Both focus groups and depth interviews are direct
approaches in which the true purpose of the research
can be disclosed to the respondents or is otherwise
obvious to them. Projective techniques are different
from these techniques in that they attempt to totally
disguise(gizlemek)the purpose of the research.
A projective technique is an unstructured, indirect
form of questioning that encourages respondents to
project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes
or feelings regarding the issues of concern. In
projective techniques, respondents are asked to
interpret the behaviour of others rather than to
describe their own behaviour.
In interpreting the behaviour of others, it is contended
that respondents indirectly project their own
motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings into the
situation. Thus, the respondent’s attitudes are
uncovered by analysing their responses to scenarios
that are deliberately(bilerek)unstructured, vague and
ambiguous.
The more ambiguous(belirsiz)the situation, the more
respondents project their emotions, needs, motives,
attitudes and values, as demonstrated by work in
clinical psychology. As in psychology, these techniques
are classified as association, completion, construction
and expressive.
Qualitative Research Proccedures
Direct
Focus
Groups
Indirect
Depth
Interviews
Association
Techniques
Completion
Techniques
Projective
Techniques
Construction
Techniques
Expressive
Techniques
Association techniques
An individual is presented with a stimulus and asked to
respond with the first thing that comes to mind. Word
association is the best known of these techniques
In word association, respondents are presented
with a list of words, one at a time, and are asked to
respond to each with the first word that comes to
mind.
The words of interest, called test words, are
interspersed throughout the list, which also
contains some neutral, or filler, words to disguise
the purpose of the study.
A Sample: Dealing with dirt
Word association was used to study women’s attitudes
towards detergents. Below is a list of stimulus words
used and the responses of two women of similar age
and household status. The sets of responses are quite
different, suggesting that the women differ in
personality
and
in
their
attitudes
towards
housekeeping.
Ms M’s associations suggest that she is resigned to
dirt. She sees dirt as inevitable and does not do much
about it. She does not do hard cleaning, nor does she
get much pleasure from her family. Ms C sees dirt too,
but is energetic, factual-minded and less emotional.
She is actively ready to combat(mücadele etmek)dirt, and she
uses soap and water as her weapons.
Fırçalamak
Pislik
Kirli
Çekişme
These findings suggest that the market for
detergents could be segmented based on
attitudes.
Firms (such as Procter & Gamble) that market
several different brands of washing powders
and detergents could benefit from positioning
different brands for different attitudinal
segments.
Qualitative Research Proccedures
Direct
Focus
Groups
Indirect
Depth
Interviews
Association
Techniques
Completion
Techniques
Projective
Techniques
Construction
Techniques
Expressive
Techniques
Complitan(derleme)
Respondents are asked to complete an incomplete
stimulus situation. Common completion techniques
in business research are sentence completion
and story completion.
1. Our political relation with neighbor countries should be
…………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. In my opinion the future of Middle east will be,
………………………………………………………………………..
3. Can be said that he economical policy of Turkish government is
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
In story completion, respondents are given
part of a story, enough to direct attention to a
particular topic but not to hint at the ending.
They are required to give the conclusion in
their own words
Qualitative Research Proccedures
Direct
Focus
Groups
Indirect
Depth
Interviews
Association
Techniques
Completion
Techniques
Projective
Techniques
Construction
Techniques
Expressive
Techniques
Construction techniques
Construction techniques are closely related to
completion techniques. Construction techniques
require the respondents to construct a response in
the form of a story, dialogue or description.
In a construction technique, the researcher provides
less initial structure to the respondents than in a
completion technique. The two main construction
techniques are picture response techniques and
cartoon tests.
picture response
Consists of a series of pictures of ordinary as well as
unusual events. In some of these pictures, the
persons or objects are clearly defined, while in
others they are relatively vague(müphem).
The respondent is asked to tell stories about these
pictures. The respondent’s interpretation of the
pictures gives indications of that individual’s
personality.
Karıcığım, bugün
alışverişimizi Migros’tan
yapalım, ne dersin?
.................
In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are
shown in a specific situation related to the
problem. Respondents are asked to indicate
what one cartoon character might say in
response to the comments of another
character.
The responses indicate the respondents’
feelings, beliefs and attitudes towards the
situation. Cartoon tests are simpler to
administer and analyse than picture
response techniques
Qualitative Research Proccedures
Direct
Focus
Groups
Indirect
Depth
Interviews
Association
Techniques
Completion
Techniques
Projective
Techniques
Construction
Techniques
Expressive
Techniques
Expressive(anlamlı)techniques
Respondents are presented with a verbal or visual
situation and asked to relate the feelings and
attitudes of other people to the situation. The
respondents express not their own feelings or
attitudes, but those of others. The two main
expressive techniques are role playing and thirdperson technique.
In role playing, respondents are asked to play the
role or to assume the behaviour of someone else.
The researcher assumes that the respondents will
project(yansıtmak)their own feelings into the role. A
major use of role playing is in uncovering the
nature of a brand personality.
Advantages and disadvantages
of projective techniques
Projective techniques have a major advantage
over the unstructured direct techniques (focus
groups and depth interviews): they may
elicit(aydınlatmak)responses that subjects would be
unwilling or unable to give if they knew the
purpose of the study.
At times, in direct questioning, the respondent
may
intentionally
or
unintentionally
misunderstand, misinterpret or mislead the
researcher.
Projective techniques suffer from many of the
disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques, but
to a greater extent. These techniques generally
require personal interviews with individuals who are
experienced interviewers and interpreters, hence
they tend to be expensive.
Furthermore, as in all qualitative techniques, there
is the risk of interpretation bias. With the exception
of word association, all are open-ended techniques,
making the analysis and interpretation more
problematic.
gevşek
It is time to
have fun

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