Fields of Science

C22 Test Review
Study Guide
Place these notes into your
Biology Notebook
A biennial is smaller during its first
growing season.
Unlike a dicot, a monocot has parallel leaf
The number of seed leaves distinguishes
two classes of angiosperms.
The specialized reproductive structure
that evolved most recently is the ovary.
There is evidence that Ginkgo biloba
evolved before most other living species
of seed plants.
Seed-bearing plants differ from all other
plants in that their gametes do not
require water for fertilization to occur.
When land environments became drier
millions of years ago, many moss and
fern species became extinct.
The most ancient surviving seed plants
are the gymnosperms.
The evolution of seed plants caused
many species of mosses and ferns to
become extinct.
The four groups of gymnosperms are
conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and
Conifers, cycads, gnetophytes, and
ginkgoes have gymnosperms that
produce exposed seeds.
A plant is a multicellular eukaryote.
Not all plants produce seeds.
To produce spores plants must undergo
Plants use the energy of the sun to carry
out photosynthesis.
Plants get the water they need from the
The first plants evolved from an organism
similar to multicellular green algae.
Living on land required that plants
conserve water.
Bryophytes draw up water by osmosis;
they lack vascular tissue.
Mosses grow in low, shaded ground close
to a water source.
The rhizoid has a similar function as a
In liverworts, the structures that produce
eggs and sperm look like tiny green
Mosses have long, thin cells called
rhizoids that anchor them in the ground.
The antheridium is the sperm-producing
structure of the bryophyte.
The immediate result of fertilization in
mosses is a zygote.
Vascular tissue includes xylem, phloem,
and tracheids.
Bryophytes do not have vascular tissue to
carry water and nutrients.
Ferns can thrive in areas with little light.
Fern spores are diploid and are produced
in sporangia.
A seed includes a plant embryo, a food
supply, and a protective covering.
Club mosses are seedless vascular
Horsetails do NOT produce seeds.
A fern life cycle is different from the moss
life cycle in that a fern gametophyte
always has both archegonia and

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