Protestant Christianity

Report
By: Ji-yeon, Priyanka, Calvin
Significant People

Martin Luther –
initiated Protestant
Reformation.
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King Henry VIII – separated
English Church from
Roman Church and made
himself head of English
Church.
John Calvin – influential
pastor during
Protestant Reformation.
Founded Calvinism.
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John Knox – a leader of
the Protestant
Reformation. Founded
the Presbyterian
Church.
King Edward VI –
Under his rule,
Protestant Christianity
becomes main religion
in England.
Significant Events

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European religious
wars – series of wars in
Europe following
Protestant Reformation.
The 95 Theses – Martin
Luther nailed it and it
began the Protestant
Reformation.

The ruins of
Glastonbury Abbey
after the Dissolution of
Monasteries during
King Henry VIII’s rule.

Peace of Westphalia –
ended the European
Religious wars.
Europe After the Reformation
Protestant
Christianity
increased
greatly after the
Protestant
Reformation.
Change Over Time
The head of the Roman Catholic Church was the pope, whom was thought to
be flawless and he had the same authority as the religious scriptures.
 With Protestant Reformation there were many changes.
 1. Sola Scriptura – The meaning is “by scripture alone”. Unlike the Roman
Catholic Church, it means that only the scripture has authority of the people.
 2. Sola Fide – The meaning is “by faith alone”. It means that the people are
saved by God through faith alone and nothing else.
 3. Sola Gratia – The meaning is “by grace alone”. It means that the people
are saved only through God and no one else.
 4. Priesthood of all believers – it means that the people have an access to
God through themselves.
 5. Protestant Christianity abolished the authority of the Pope, merit of good
works, indulgences, mediation of Mary and the Saints, all the sacraments
excluding Baptism and the Lord’s Supper because they were practiced by
Christ, doctrine of transubstantiation, mass as a sacrifice, purgatory, prayers
for the dead, and confessions to a priest.
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Change Over Time (continued)
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1517 - The Protestant Reformation begins
1521 – King Henry VIII, split Roman Catholic Church from England
and became the Head of English Church.
1530 – The Lutheran Church branches off of Protestant Christianity
(founded by Martin Luther).
1547 - King Edward VI becomes King of England. Protestant
Christianity becomes the main religion.
1550’s – Calvinism is created and branching off of Protestant
Christianity, dominates in Europe.
1553 – Mary I becomes Queen of England . England returns to
Roman Catholicism and Protestants are persecuted and burned at
the stake.
1563 – The Thirty-nine Articles are written and the Anglican Church
branches off of Protestant Christianity.
1572 – The Presbyterian Church branches off of Protestant
Christianity (founded by John Knox, after disagreement with
Lutherans over sacraments and the church government).
Branches of Protestant
Christianity
Chronology
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Protestantism was first established as a branch of Christianity during the
Protestant Reformation, also known as the Protestant Revolt. It began in
1517 when Martin Luther published the Ninety-Five Theses and ended in
1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia.
October 31, 1517: Protestant Reformation begins in Wittenberg where Martin
Luther nailed the Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences
to the door of the Castle Church. The theses criticized the Church and the
Pope and opened the doors for debate. The Protestant Reformation broke
power of Catholic Church and split Europe into 2 groups: the Catholics and the
Protestants.
1520: Luther publishes 3 pamphlets: “Address to the Christian Nobility of the
German Nation”, “Babylonian Captivity of the Church”, and “Freedom of a
Christian”. Followers of Luther were known as Lutherans.
January 3, 1521: Luther is officially excommunicated (suspended from religious
community).
1521: Henry VIII, a Catholic King, defends the papacy against Luther in a book
called The Defense of the Seven Sacraments.
1521: Diet of Worms (Edict of Worms), which was an assembly of the Roman
Empire decreed Luther as an outlaw religiously and secularly.
1524-1525: (German Peasants’ War) German peasants revolt partly because of
the Protestant Reformation.
Chronology (continued)
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1529: Diet of Speyer reaffirms edict of the Diet of Worms.
1531: The Smalkaldic League, an offensive and defensive alliance, is
concluded between Protestant princes and cities.
1534: John Calvin converts to Protestantism and becomes a highly
influential leader in Protestant Reformation. Followers were called
Calvinists.
1535: Protestant and Catholic armies crush the radicals in Munster.
1541: John Calvin publishes “Institutes of the Christian Religion,” a summary
of Christian teachings.
1547: Collapse of Smalkaldic League.
1550’s: Calvinism takes over as the dominant Protestant religion in Europe
1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre in which French Protestants were
the target.
1607: First successful English Protestant colony in Virginia (New World).
1618: Thirty Year War begins. It was initially fought because of the religious
conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics.
1648: End of Thirty Year War. The Treaty of Westphalia ends European
religious wars.
Comparisons
Protestants are a branch off of Christianity, so they are
monotheistic (belief in one god), just like other monotheistic
religions such as Judaism and Islam. In contrast, Protestantism is
different from polytheistic (belief in multiple gods) religions such as
the religions of early Greek and Egypt empires.
 Protestantism originated in Germany. During the Protestant
Reformation, Protestantism spread to other parts of Europe
because of influential leaders such as Martin Luther and John
Calvin and the printing press’s ability to copy and spread
information quickly to multiple areas.
 The pilgrims traveled to America so they could practice their
Protestant faith in 17th century and avoid being forced to practice a
certain religion by the Church; however, earlier in the 16th century,
people such as Luther in Germany and Europe were
excommunicated because of Protestant faith.
 Protestantism was able to grow in different ways as well. In
Europe the idea that family was fundamental unit fostered religous
belief. In Asia, missionaries that helped establish schools and
clinics were able to spread Protestantism.
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Comparisons (continued)
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British Baptists played a major role by converting people in Central
Africa to Protestantism by providing them with a basic education
and minimal welfare services.
Movement of Protestantism was strongest in the Northern Europe.
The southern countries of Spain and Italy remained mainly Catholic.
Other branches of Protestantism emerged during the Reformation
period. For example Calvinism was mainly followed in Switzerland,
France, and the Netherlands. Lutheranism was quickly followed in
Denmark. In England, Protestantism took many forms because of
churches of Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism all received
popular support.
Both Protestantism and Catholicism were spread by European
merchants, soldiers, and missionaries around the world, especially
in the Americas.
-Protestantism came to each region in a different way. In Europe
the idea of humanism gave rise to the Protetsant Reformation. In
Asia, Protestantism was introduced by missionaries. In North
America, Protestantism came with the Puritans.
Europe PIRATES
Politics
Intelligence
•1529 - In England, King Henry the VIII
formed the Reformation Parliament. This
parliament passed legislative laws such
as the “Acts of Supremacy”.
•1559- Queen Elizabeth I passed “The Act
of Supremacy of 1559” the “Act of
Uniformity. This created unity between
Catholics and Protestants.
•Lorenzo Valla, who wanted to get rid of
the Roman Catholic Church’s chokehold
had inspired people to learn the original
language of the Bible and allowed them to
read and interpret the Bible themselves.
This spurred people like Martin Luther
and John Calvin to began their
Protestantism movement.
Europe PIRATES (continued)
Technology
Society
•The printing press was one of the major pieces
of technology that helped Martin Luther
advance his ideals to the general public
through printing pamphlets. With the recentlyinvented printing press, he was able to print his
95 Theses against the abuses of indulgences
and gained unprecedented written
communication.
•1520s- In Germany, the idea that the family was
the fundamental unit that fostered both
religious belief and society grew by the 1520s.
The vision of the Protestant farmers was that
the family was a patriarchal family, but the
mother was still in charge of the nurture and
education of her child. Both of the parents had
to teach their children Christian beliefs and
practices.
Economy
•A German sociologist, economist and
politician named Max Weber wrote about the
relationship between the Protestant ethic and
the development of capitalism. Certain
branches of Protestantism had supported
activities dedicated to economic gain because
they were endowed with moral and spiritual
significance. Protestantism put a “vocation” of
God on occupation or trade. This impacted the
development of economic systems all around
Europe.
Asia PIRATES
Politics
Intelligence
• 19th Century - Christianity came to China in • 1807-1953 - The Protestant Christianity
the early 19th century during the Qing
dynasty from Robert Morrison of the London
Missionary Society who went to Macau.
Western powers had forced the Chinese
government to allow in the missionaries.
• 1600s - One of the commanders of the
Japanese invasions of Korea, Konishi
Yukinaga, was the first Christian in Korea.
He brought Julia Ota, a Korean girl, back
with him to Japan and she became the first
Korean Christian. Later a Korean diplomat Yi
Gwang Jeong returned from Beijing carrying
several theological books written by Matteo
Ricci, a missionary to China.
movement in China expanded the
knowledge of history and medicine in the
country. They established and developed
schools where they taught the latest
techniques in medicine. They were the first
school system to offer education to the poor
boys and girls, who before had no hope of
learning at school.
• The first Protestant in Japan, Dr. James
Hepburn founded the Hepburn School (Meiji
Gakuin University), wrote an EnglishJapanese dictionary and contributed to the
translation of the Protestant Bible in
Japanese.
Asia PIRATES (continued)
Art & Architecture
•In Kerala, India, the church architectures
have been influenced by other nations and
cultures like the Portuguese, the Dutch, the
French and the English. There are three
striking things about the style of these
churches: (1) the open-air granite cross, (2)
a flag-staff made from Kerala’s famed teak
wood and (3) a lampstand. Most protestant
cathedrals in India conform to the
architectural style of Neo-Gothic and Gothic
Revival. French and Danish art can be seen
as influences on Christian art in India.
Society
• Protestant Christians in China did many
things including; establishing clinics and
hospitals, providing proper training for
nurses, opening modern schools, working to
abolish foot binding, and improve treatment
of servants. They launched charities and fed
the poor. They also provided treatment to
the people who were addicted to opium
because of opium trade.
• 19th century - Aggression created by the
Christians under British rule of India caused
resentment from the Hindus and the
Muslims in the 19th century who felt that
their religions and cultures were being
attacked.
North America PIRATES
Pirates
• late 1600s- The Puritans came to North
Intelligence
• Mainline Protestant Christianity was open to
America and established the Massachusetts
Bay Colony in 1629 with 400 settlers. They
hoped that this new land would be the
“redeemer nation.” The tensions between the
Puritans and the Native Americans eventually
led to King Phillip’s War of 1675.
• 1776- when American soldiers went to fight
against the King and his men, they revised
the Book of Common Prayer to conform of
political realities. To go against the King was
to go against the Anglican Church of England
and this was considered treason and
blasphemy.
new ideas, new standards of morality and
societal changes without abandoning the
foundation of Protestant Christianity. It is
moderate and is influenced by higher
criticism, which what scholars use to
separate the Bible’s earliest historical parts
and intentional distortions.
North America PIRATES (continued)
Society
• 1700s- The Great Awakenings were religious
revivals in American religious history. The
First Awakening began in 1725 and ended in
1750. This was basically a revival brought from
evangelical Protestant ministers who wanted
to increase the interest in religion and it led to
the formation of new religious movements and
denominations.
• During the Salem Witch Trials, the Puritans
were in power of the colony of Massachusetts.
While it was not a theocracy, many of the
actions of the people in Massachusetts related
to their learnings as Puritans. Cotton Mather, a
Puritan minister at the time, describe a strange
behavior shown by the four children of the
mason John Goodwin and that came from
witchcraft from an Irish washerwoman, Mary
Glover, who was Catholic.
Protestant Christianity Today
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In 2005, there were an estimated 800 million Protestant
Christians in the world. Now the Protestant religion is split
up into many denominations like Lutherans,
Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists and the
Congregationalists. Protestant Christianity also branched
out into the fundamentalists. In the 21st century, about
27% of the population in the United States and Russia are
fundamentalists. Protestantism has also been expanding
into areas like Latin America, where Catholicism is more
prominent in the area. In the end, the growth of
Protestantism is still high. It had impacted religious
practices all across the world, especially in countries in
Latin America, who are converting to Protestantism. In
China, Protestant Christianity has improved their
economy with the practice of the Protestant Ethics.
Works Cited
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http://www.skwirk.com.au/p-c_s-14_u-422_t-1108_c4281/VIC/7/The-spread-of-Protestantism-in-Europe/TheReformation/Renaissance-and-Reformation/History
http://www.britannica.com/facts/5/467586/Protestantismas-discussed-in-Central-Africa
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12495a.htm
http://socyberty.com/history/protestant-reformationtimeline
http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/eras/era6.php
http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/rel04-demograph.htm
http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/832012
http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon41.html
http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/SAL
_ACCT.HTM
Work Division
Ji-yeon – PowerPoint,
Maps/Charts/Pictures, Change over
time.
 Priyanka – PIRATES, Protestant
Christianity today.
 Calvin – Comparison, Chronology
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