Imperialism The Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914 Causes Nationalism To gain power, European nations compete for colonies and trade. Economic Competition Demand for raw materials and new markets spurs a search for colonies. Missionary Spirit Europeans believe they must spread their Christian teachings to the world. Europeans exerted influence over the economic, political, and social lives of people they colonized. The Age of Imperialism, 1850-1914 Effects Colonization Europeans control land and people in areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Europeans exerted influence over the economic, political, and social lives of people they colonized. Colonial Economics Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash-crop economies. Christianization Christianity is spread to Africa, India, and Asia. Form Definition Example Colony A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power. Somaliland in East Africa was a French Colony. Protectorate A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power. Britain established a protectorate over the Niger River Delta. Sphere of Influence An area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges. Liberia was under the sphere of influence of the United States. Economic Imperialism An independent but less developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments. The Dole Fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii. Indirect Control Local government officials used. • Limited self-rule. • Goal: to develop future leaders. • Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules. • Direct Control Foreign officials brought in to rule. • No self-rule • Government institutions are based only on European styles. • Examples: Examples: • British colonies such as Nigeria, • French colonies such as India, Burma Somaliland, Vietnam. • U.S. colonies on Pacaific Islands. • German colonies such as German East Africa. • Portuguese colonies such as Angola. Berlin Conference (1884): European countries decided they could claim African colonies just by setting up government offices in African territory. This set off a Great Scramble as Europeans rushed to colonize Africa. Africa Before European Dominion Divided into hundreds of ethnic groups Followed traditional beliefs, Islam or Christianity Nations ranged from large empires to independent villages Africans controlled their own trade networks Europeans only had contact on African coasts Nations compete for overseas empires Europeans wanted more land Contained large amounts of gold, diamonds, and rubber Africa was a mystery to many Europeans who penetrated Africa were: Explorers – seeking wealth and notoriety Missionaries – trying to convert Africans to Christianity Humanitarians – “westernize” the “savages” Forces Driving Imperialism Belief in European superiority Racism Social Darwinism Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa European technological superiority Europeans had means to control New medicines prevent diseases A Map of Africa (1914), showing the extent of colonization "White Man's Burden": racist patronizing that preached that the “superior” Westerners had an obligation to bring their culture to “uncivilized” peoples in other parts of the world Poem by Rudyard Kipling Germany and Russia especially used imperialistic drives to divert popular attention from the class struggle at home and to create a false sense of national unity.