Shining Purple Curves

Theories & Concepts of Leadership
Debie Dahlia, SKp., MHSM., ETN
Page 1
Defining Leadership
• Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something
you want done because he wants to do it (Dwight D. Eisenhower)
• The special quality which enables people to stand up
and pull the rest of us over the horizon (James L. Fischer)
• Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other
(John F. Kennedy)
• Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising
of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a
personality beyond its normal limitations (Peter F. Drucker)
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• The first step to leadership is servanthood (John
• The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality
(Max DePere)
• Has a harder job to do than just choose sides. It must
bring sides together (Jesse Jackson)
• The only test of leadership is that somebody follows
(Robert K. Greenleaf)
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What Is A Leader?
• A leader is an individual who works with others to
develop a clear vision of the preferred future and to
make that vision happen.
• Oackley & Krug (1994) , the ability to elicit a vision
into reality
• Leadership is very important concept in life
• Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called his vision a dream
• Mother Teresa called her vision a calling
• Steven Spielberg called his vision a finished motion
• Florence Nightingale called her vision nursing
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A Leader’s Roles
Decision maker, Critical thinker, Visionary, Forecaster,
Influencer, Creative Problem Solver, Change Agent, Role
Model, Risk Taker, Communicator, Coach, Evaluator,
Facilitator, Mentor, Energizer, Teacher, Buffer,
Advocate, Diplomat, Counselor
Page 5
The Leadership theories
• The Great Man Theory/ Trait Theories
• Behavioral Theories
• Situational and Contingency Leadership Theories
• Contemporary Theories of Leadership
– Interactional Leadership Theories
– Transformational Leadership
Page 6
The Great Man Theory/ Trait Theories
• The Trait Theories : some people have certain
characteristics or personality traits that make them
better leaders than others.
• The Great Man Theory: some people are born to
lead, whereas others born to be led
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Characteristics in the trait theory
Page 8
Behavioral Theories
• Lewin (1995) and White & Lippit (1960): isolated
common leadership styles  authoritarian,
democratic & laissez – faire
• Authoritarian leaders characteristic:
• Results of authoritarian style
• The democratic leaders behavior:
• Result
• The Laissez-faire Leader
• Result
Page 9
Situational and Contingency Leadership
• Follet (1926) and Fiedler (1967): No one leadership style is
ideal for every situation
• Three factors are critical:
1) The degree of trust and respect between leaders &
2) The task structure denoting the clarity of goals and the
complexity of problems faced
3) The position power in terms of where the leader was
able to reward follower s and exert influence
• Consequently,l eaders were viewed as able to adapt their
style according to the presenting situation.
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Contemporary Theories
• Leadership depend on organizational culture, values of the
leader and follower, the work, the environment, the influence
of the leader, the complexities of the situation
• Interactional leadership theories (Theory Z expansion of
theory Y), Ouchi, 1981: determined by the relationship
between the leader’s personality and specific situation.
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Characteristic of theory Z :
consensus decision making.
Fitting employee to their job
Job security
Slower promotions
Examining the long term consequences of management decision
Quality circles
Guarantee of lifetime employment
Establishment of strong bonds of responsibility between supervisors &
Holistic concern for the worker
Page 12
Transformational Leadership
A process whereby the leader attends to the needs
and motives of followers so that the interaction
raises each to high levels of motivation and
morality. The leader is a role model who inspires
follower through displayed optimism , provides
intellectual stimulation, and encourage follower
Page 13
Transactional Leader
Transformational Leader
Page 14
Principles of Leadership
• Know yourself and seek self-improvement
• Be technically proficient
• Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your
• Make sound and timely decisions
• Set the example
• Know your people and look out for their well-being
• Keep your people informed
• Develop a sense of responsibility in your people
• Ensure that tasks are understood
• Train your people as a team
• Use the full capabilities of your organization
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Factors of Leadership
There are four major factors in leadership:
1. Follower
2. Leader
3. Communication
4. Situation
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• Different people require different styles of
• For examples:
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• Who you are, what you know, and what you can do
• To be successful you have to convince your
followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you
are worthy of being followed
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• You lead through two way communication
• Much of it is non verbal
• What and how you communicate either builds or harm the
relationship between you and your employees
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• Do provide direction
• Do implement
• Do motivate
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• What you do in one situation will not always
work in another
• You must use your judgment to decide the best
course of action and the leadership style needed
for each situation
Page 21
Leadership Framework
• Be Know Do
• Be a professional
• Be a professional who possess good character
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• Know the four factors of leadership
• Know yourself
• Know human nature
• Know your job
• Know your organization
Page 23
Komponen Kepemimpinan Yang Efektif
• Pengetahuan
• Kesadaran diri
• Komunikasi
• Bersemangat
• Tujuan/ Sasaran
• Kegiatan konkrit
Page 24
Thank You
Leaders don’t force people to follow,
They invite them on a journey
(Charles S Lauer)
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