Welcome Opening Prayer Share observations of colleagues and/or lesson plans So far in our SIOP review we have discussed: Elements of effective planning for sheltered instruction Content and language objectives Assessing and building prior knowledge How to adjust rate, enunciation, and support strategies as we speak How to give clear, specific, step-by-step instructions …along with other sheltered instruction issues. Now we will look at: How to teach students to access information in memory, How we help them make connections between what they know and what they are learning, How we assist them in problem solving, and How we promote retention of newly learned information. We do this by explicitly teaching strategies that facilitate the learning process. SIOP Chapter 5: Strategies Content Objectives: I will identify language learning strategies to use with students. I will identify techniques for scaffolding verbal, procedural, and instructional understanding. Language Objectives: I will write 2-3 sentences describing how I can use a learning strategy in my classroom and discuss with a colleague. Strategies F13. Learning Strategies F14. Scaffolding Techniques Metacognitive Verbal Cognitive Procedural Social/Affective Instructional F15. Higher Order Questioning How is new information retained and connected in the brain? Each person uses certain “mental processes” (special thoughts or behaviors) to help them comprehend, learn, and retain. These mental process are often referred to as “learning strategies.” These learning strategies create “mental pathways” that link new information to a person’s existing schema. If a person’s existing schema is well-developed and personally meaningful, they will learn new information more quickly and more permanently. Metacognitive Strategies Metacognition is purposefully monitoring our thinking. Matching thinking and problem-solving strategies to particular learning situations 2. Clarifying purposes for learning 3. Monitoring one’s own comprehension through selfquestioning 4. Taking corrective action if understanding fails. 1. When metacognitive strategies are taught explicitly, reading comprehension improves. Cognitive Strategies Procedures used by learners in specific learning situations. For example, Previewing a story prior to reading Establishing a purpose for reading Consciously connecting what is happening in the text to our own life Taking notes during a lecture Creating and using a graphic organizer Social/Affective Strategies Social and affective influences on learning. Understanding how to work in a group to increase learning Knowing how students’ status in the larger group is affecting learning Understanding the forces of motivation Strategies TVET: Mnemonics Social Studies: GIST Math: Rehearsal strategies, Graphic Organizers Religion: Comprehension Strategies English: Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) Science: SQP2RS Quick Write/Partner-Class Share Choose a strategy we just discussed. Write 2-3 sentences describing how you can use the strategy in your classroom. Discuss what you have written with a colleague What is “Scaffolding?” Based on Vygotsky’s notion of the “Zone of Proximal Development” (ZPD) Current level of development Zone of Proximal Development (can be learned with “scaffolding”) Level of development currently out of reach Verbal Scaffolding Teachers use prompting, questioning, and elaboration to facilitate student movement to higher levels of language proficiency. Paraphrasing – Restating a student’s response in order to model correct English usage Think-alouds – metacognition; saying what we are thinking Reinforced contextual definitions – An example is: “Aborigines, the people native to Australia, were being forced from their homes.” Procedural Scaffolding Using varied and attentive instructional procedures based on student need. Explicit teaching, modeling, and carefully monitored guided practice One-on-one teaching, coaching, and modeling Small group instruction Children practicing newly learned strategies with another more experienced student Partnering or grouping students for learning activities Instructional Scaffolding Materials and devices used during instruction to help students understand the language of the lesson. Graphic organizers Outlines Copies of key vocabulary Timelines Summaries of important content Scaffolding Teach Model Practice Apply SIOP Chapter 5: Strategies Content Objectives: I will identify language learning strategies to use with students. I will identify techniques for scaffolding verbal, procedural, and instructional understanding. Language Objectives: I will write 2-3 sentences describing how I can use a learning strategy in my classroom and discuss with a colleague.