Food adulteration is defined as ‘the intentional addition of non-permitted foreign matter’. Reasons for food adulteration are To get more profit To increase the weight, adulterant is added. To increase volume of trade by showing lower prices. Common adulterants present in food: Milk - Addition of water/removal of fat. Skim milk - soluble starch. Cream -foreign fats. Ghee -Hydrogenated fat/animal fat. Vegetable oils -Cheap/non edible oil like linseed, mineral oils. Wheat and rice -stones Bengal gram dhal -Kesari dhal. Chilli powder- Starch colored red by tar dye. Black pepper- Dried papaya seeds Honey -colored sugar syrup. Tea - exhausted tea leaves. Food Contaminants as Allergens The Contaminants of food for example preservatives, insecticides and insect excreta or fragments may act as allergens and the food by itself may be harmless. The common additives include color, flavoring materials, preservatives, and insecticides, etc. For example, Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (N D G TA) is an antioxidant used in food fats, which has been found to produce allergic reactions in some individuals. Allergic reaction arising due to food allergy are of 2 types . 1.Immediate reaction.2.Delayed reaction. Symptoms Skin manifestations. Examples include cancer sores, purities, urinary (rashes) dermatitis, blisters and edema. PRECAUTION IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY Eye protection must be worn at all times in the lab Appropriate attire must be worn in the lab. Memorize the location of all exits, showers, eye washes, fire extinguishers, and fire blankets. No food or beverages are allowed in the lab. Be certain that there are no flammables in the area when lighting a flame. Be alert for hazards in the lab. Do not proceed with any experiment until you understand the hazards involved. Report all injuries to your instructor, even if they appear to be minor. INJURIES DUE TO HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS To prevent working injuries throughout the Group, it is important to maintain high priority on planning and work with chemicals. A number of ongoing projects are aimed at reducing or eliminating the risks of handling chemicals. The substitution principle, i.e. replacing hazardous chemicals with less hazardous ones, is an important part of this risk prevention work. For example, measures have been taken to replace allergenic chemicals. www.itrcindia.org/services2.html seafood.ucdavis.edu/sanitation/Ch5points.rtf www.fda.gov/oc/history/historyoffda/default.htm - 8k www.itrcindia.org/services2.html - 13k http://www.perstorp.se/pnet/ext/septp370.nsf/EnvRep/ http://people.cornellcollege.edu/cliberko/OrgLabManual.