Presentation of Dr Yulia Yamineva

Report
CLIMATE-RELATED POLICIES IN
RUSSIA: AN OVERVIEW
YULIA YAMINEVA, PHD, UEF
STRUCTURE
• Russia and UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change, Kyoto Protocol
• Climate Doctrine, national emission reduction goal
• Climate-related policies in the energy sector:
energy efficiency, renewable energy, reducing
emissions from gas flaring
• Kyoto Protocol mechanisms
• Russia’s position on a future UN agreement on
climate change
• Perspectives on EU-Russia climate cooperation
RUSSIA AND UNFCCC
• Ratified the Convention in 1994
• Annex I Party: limiting GHGs, reporting
• But “economy in transition”: “a certain degree of
flexibility” and no financial commitments
• Ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2004
• Kyoto-1 for 2008-2012: not exceeding emissions of
1990
• In 1997 emissions were 37% lower than in 1990 –
holder of excess carbon credits
RUSSIA’S GHG EMISSIONS
• In 2013, emissions were at 70% from 1990 levels
(Ministry for Economic Development)
• Fourth largest emitter in the world but role of sinks
• Energy sector accounts for 82.4% of total emissions
• One of the most carbon intensive economies.
Energy efficiency potential is about 45% (World
Bank 2008)
EVOLUTION OF CLIMATE POLICY
• No national climate policy and legislation up to 2009
• Climate Doctrine 2009 (anthropogenic climate change).
Mitigation policies:
• increasing energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy;
• developing renewables and alternative sources of energy;
• reducing market failures and implementing financial and tax
measures to promote greenhouse gas emission reductions;
and
• protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of
greenhouse gases, including sustainable forest management,
afforestation and reforestation on a sustainable basis
• No national goal. At COP 15, Medvedev 25 %, later 1525 %, then again 25% but not formalised legally
• In parallel: energy efficiency legislation
ENERGY SECTOR: ENERGY EFFICIENCY
• Policy document - Energy Strategy for the period up
to 2030 (2009);
• Federal Law on Energy Conservation and
Increasing Energy Efficiency (2009) and its Action
Plan: to decrease energy intensity of GDP by 40% in
2020 compared to 2007;
• Ministry for Energy: State Programme on Energy
Efficiency and Development of the Energy Sector
(2012): state guarantees, subsidies and other
measures
• Modest progress, unclear financing sources
ENERGY SECTOR: GAS FLARING
• Reducing emissions from gas flaring:
• World’s “leader” on gas flaring: 2011 – utilised only 75.4 %
• Governmental resolution of 2009: to utilise 95% of Associated
Petroleum Gas from 2012; increased sanctions
• Oil companies
ENERGY SECTOR: RENEWABLE ENERGY
• Renewable energy: currently 1 % in the energy mix
but truly gigantic potential, especially in isolated
areas.
• Federal Electricity Law, governmental resolution of
2009 “Main Directions for the State Policy in the
Area of Increasing Electrical Energy Efficiency on
the Basis of the Use of Renewables for the Period up
to 2020”
• Increase to 4.5% by 2020 but not on track
• Insufficient legal and regulatory framework to stimulate RE
under a premium-based scheme
• But a new capacity-based scheme 2013
KYOTO PROTOCOL’S MECHANISMS
• Took very long to develop a domestic framework on JI
• Framework of 2007 never used
• New framework 2009 (revised in 2011):
•
•
•
•
Projects are approved on the basis of tender
Ceiling of emission reductions 300 mln units
Sberbank is the main operator
Commitment to reinvest revenue in modernisation &
environmental projects
• In total, 150 projects initiated, emissions reductions of
more than 380 mln ton CO2eq – leading position after
China
• Sectors: oil&gas, metallurgy, district heating, chemicals
etc. Energy efficiency and renewables – 62%
RUSSIA AND FUTURE AGREEMENT
• Russia did not sign up for Kyoto-2 so:
• no targets
• no participation in mechanisms
• but still part of KP
• Strong position on a future agreement:
• all major emitters (China and US) should participate in a
future agreement;
• role of carbon sinks should be accounted for.
CHALLENGES
• Lack of political will, lags behind other countries
• Climate change, low-carbon development is no
policy driver
• Insufficient policy, legislative and financial support
• Implementation/enforcement issues
• Inter-ministry fights: e.g. Ministry of Economic
Development vs Ministry of Natural Resources
BUT
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
• Post-Doha 2012 – creation of the Inter-Agency
Working Group on Climate Change and
Sustainable Development
• Current discussion on mitigation policies:
• How to use the JI infrastructure (state to purchase credits?
through the Programme on Energy Efficiency)
• Proposal for a national ETS by the Ministry for Economic
Development
• National emission reduction goal. Draft decree bouncing
back and forth
• In parallel, strengthening national legislation on reducing air
pollution and best available environmental technologies
PERSPECTIVES ON
EU-RUSSIA CLIMATE COOPERATION
• Packaging: low-carbon vs increasing energy
efficiency, economic competitiveness, innovation
• Collaboration on research, innovation, best
practices
• “Green image” factors: climate-neutral Olympics
etc
• Role of big companies: voluntary carbon reporting,
equator principles
• OECD ascension – strengthening environmental
legislation
THANK YOU!!
• [email protected]
• Update on Yamineva, Yulia. Climate Law and Policy
in Russia: a Peasant Needs Thunder to Cross Himself
and Wonder. In Hollo, Erkki, Kati Kulovesi and
Michael Mehling, eds. Climate Change and the
Law, Springer, 2013. Pp. 551-566. Available on SSRN.

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