An invitation to the study of Sociolinguistics

Report
Faizal Risdianto,S.S,M.Hum
[email protected]
Salatiga State Institute of Islamic Studies
More definitions
 Criper and widowson (1975):Sociolinguistics is the
study of language in operations; its purpose is to show
how the conventions of language use relate to other
aspects of culture.
 Hudson, Hymes, Fishman (1980) : the study of
language in relation to society.
 Nababan (1984): “Sociolinguistik adalah kajian atau
pembahasan bahasa sehubungan dengan penutur
bahasa itu sebagai anggota masyarakat.
 Speech variety: a term sometimes used instead of
LANGUAGE, DIALECT, SOCIOLECT,
PIDGIN,CREOLE etc. it is used because of it
neutrality than such terms.
 Dialect: a variety of a language, spoken in one part of a
country (regional dialect), or by people belonging to a
particular social class (social dialect or SOCIOLECT),
which is different in some words, grammar and/or
pronunciation from other forms of the same language.
A dialect is often asscociated with a particular accent.
Ex: banyumas javanese vs solo & jogja javanese,
American and British English, etc.
 Sociolect is a variety of a language (a DIALECT) used
by people belonging to a particular social class. The
speakers of a sociolect usually share a similar
socioeconomic and/or educational background.
Sociolects may be classed as high ( in status) or low (
in status).
 Idiolect is the language system of an individual as
expressed by the way he or she speaks or writes within
the overall system of a particular language. Ex: the
idiolects of Soeharto and Harmoko in the new order
era of Indonesia.
 Jargon is a speech or writing containing specialized
words or constructions : the jargon of law, medical
jargon, political jargon. Ex: YES WE CAN by Obama,
Mari kita cintai produk dalam negeri by Indonesian
political leaders. Nasdem, gerakan perubahan?
 The term “jargon” is typically used by those unfamilar
with that particular type of language, and /or by those
who dislike it.
 Slang . Words or expression used especially in very
informal situations among close association.
 Argot is a variety of language often used for a secret
communication therefore understood exclusively by
the members of a group who form such a language.
The Jakartan bahasa prokem was originated from the
language of underworld/thugs but then gradually it
was popular slang language among youngster at that
moment. Bokap-nyokap=bapak,ibu. Bo’il=mobil,
rosada=saudara.
 Code switching (alih kode) . A change by a speaker (or
writer) from one language or language variety to
another one. Code switching can take place in a
conversation when one speaker uses one language and
the other speaker answers in a different language.
 Code mixing (campur kode) . A situation where two or
more languages or varieties of a language are mixed in
a conversation.
 Argot is a variety of language often used for a secret
communication therefore understood exclusively by
the members of a group who form such a language.
The Jakartan bahasa prokem was originated from the
language of underworld/thugs but then gradually it
was popular slang language among youngster at that
moment. Bokap-nyokap=bapak,ibu. Bo’il=mobil,
rosada=saudara.
 PIDGIN is a language which develops as a contact
language when groups of people who speak different
languages come into contact and communicate with
one another, as when foreign traders communicate
with the local population or workers on plantations or
in factories communicate with one another or with
their bosses. A pidgin usually has a limited vocabulary
and a very reduced grammatical structure which may
expand when a pidgin is used over a long period of
time or for many purposes. For example, Tok Pisin (a
new guinea Pidgin). Ex: Yu ken kisim long olgeta bik
pela stua which means “You can get it at all big stores”.
CREOLES & PIDGIN
 Cr eoles is a PIDGIN language which has become the
native language of a group of speakers, being used for
all or many of their daily communicative needs.
Usually, the sentence structures and vocabulary range
of a creole are far more complex than those of PIDGIN
language. CREOLES are usually classified according t
the language form which most of their vocabulary
comes, eg English-based, French-based, Portuguesebased, and swahili-based creoles. Examples of englishbased creoles are Jamaican Creole, Hawaiian.

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