ROMAN ARCHITECTURE

Report
General Influences
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Geographical:
Geological:
Climatic:
Religious:
Socio-Cultural:
Historical:
GEOGRAPHICAL
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Simplicity of the long coast-line of the Italian
Peninsula
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Apennines runs like a spine down the centre of Italy
and much of the country is very mountainous
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The central and commanding position of Italy in the
Mediterranean Sea enabled Rome to act as an
intermediary in spreading art and civilisation
GEOLOGICAL
 Romans could procure terra-cotta, stone, and
brick, all of which they used, even for
important buildings
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Marble
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Hard limestone from Tivoli
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The building material, however, which led to
great structural innovations
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Pozzolana
CLIMATE
 North Italy has the climate of the temperate
region of Europe, Central Italy is genial and
sunny, while the south is almost tropical.
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Every house, whether palace, villa, or "
domus," had an altar to the Lares or family
gods
SOCIAL
 The early form of government in Italy
resembled that of Greece, and towns or
districts were joined together in leagues
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The government of Rome was at an early
period carried on by chosen kings (B.C. 750–
500) aided by a popular assembly, but about
B.C. 500 Rome became a Republic
HISTORICAL
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Etruscans came to Rome at around 12th
Century BCE
- Archs and Vaults
-Radiating Arch
- Tuscan Column
- Atrium Type of House
- South Orientation of Temples
Influence of Greek Architecture
- Romans considered Greek Architecture as the
acme of perfection
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Distinct Roman Achitecture Flourished in
the Augustan Age
-Rome as a city of marble from a city of bricks
- The purpose of construction
SPECIFIC INFLUENCES
Architectural Character:
- Vastness
-Magnificence
-Ostentation
-Omateness
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Romans had the desire to create buildings
that would reflect the prestige, wealth and
might of the Roman Empire. It has the motif
of pretentiousness as they want to impress
other people about what the have.
Bonggasius, Elegant looking
BUILDING MATERIALS
Materials naturally found in mainland Italy:
-Travertine -Terracotta
-Carrara
-Pozzolana Sand
Materials supplied by different Roman Colonies:
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Marbles
Alabaster
CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM
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This system of construction used by the
romans have focused on the use of archs
instead of a post and lintel construction
which focuses on the usage of beams instead
of archs
COMPERATIVE ANALYSIS
Plans
- Mostly Roman plans are only one-storey
because of the diversity of their activities
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-They also have some variety of multi-storey
structures that were present
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Walls
The walls that the Romans made were made
of stone and concrete in general with
different facings such as:
 Opus -Quadratum
 Opus-Insertum
 Opus-Reticulatum
 Opus-Testaceum
 Opus-Mixtum
Opus-Quadratum
Opus-Testaceum
Opus-Insertum
Opus-Reticulatum
Opus-Mixtum
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Arches
- An arch is a structure that spans through a
space while supporting weight. The Romans
have developed this structure to be used in
their buildings and eventually developed into
different styles and shapes
Roofs
 Semi Circular
 Cross Vault
 Cupula or Dome
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3 Kinds of Buttress
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A buttress is an architectural structure used
to support and reinforce a wall. It is built
against a wall or projecting from a wall.
Examples:
 Hemicycle : semi circular in structure and
made up of brick or stone
 Spur: Buttress that is triangular in shape
used
to strengthen the bottom of a round tower
 Pinnacle Buttress: additional weight to the
Spur buttress
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Burial Places:
 Cemeteria- Subterranean
Tomb
 Monumental Tombs- Large Cylinrical block,
open of quadrangular podium topped with
conical ground of eart
 Pyramidal- After the Egyptians
 Temple Shaped- After the Greeks
 Sculptured Memorial- tomb in varying forms
and ornaments
 Cenotaphs- burial place for soldiers
ORNAMENTS
 Mosaic : Used on walls, floors, etc. with the
following patterns
 Opus-Tesselatum or Verniculatum
 Made up of square Tesserae cut in square
shapes
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Opus Sectile or Sculatum
 Usually cut in various shapes and used on
walls
 Opus Spicatum – Used specially on floors and
is often in Chevron or Herringbone pattern
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Mural Paintings
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EXAMPLES OF FAMOUS ROMAN
ARCHITECTURE
 Forum – Described
as a market place
It has been the center of Political and Civic
Activities
Also considered as the business district
 Roman Temples :
Temple of Venus by Apollodorus Damascus
 Temple of Maison Carree
Biggest existing Roman Temple
Served as a model for the Capitol in the UA by Thomas Jefferson
 Circular temples
Temple of Vesta
The most sacred Shrine in Rome
Vesta is the virgin goddess of Hearth, Home and Family
 The Pantheon
The supreme example of Roman structure of
ingenuity and its aesthetic apogee
 5,000 tons of concrete, but the content of the
concrete varied to lighten the load as it
ascended.
 Mixed with heavy basalt at the bottom, the
layers contained porous, lightweight pumice
at the top.
 The coffers of the dome also diminish in size
and depth as the dome rises.
 The sole supports of the dome are 16 barrel
vaults channelling weight to eight piers,
disguised by cosmetic columns.
 The 30 foot-wide oculus at the apex of the
dome is the only natural source of light
inside.
 The geometry and details of design create a
cosmic symbol to match the purpose of the
temple.
 Thermae – An elevated public bath over a
platform with utilities underneath
 In many ways, baths were the ancient Roman
equivalent of community centers. Because
the bathing process took so long,
conversation was necessary. Many Romans
would use the baths as a place to invite their
friends to dinner parties, and many politicians
would go to the baths to convince fellow
Romans to join their causes.
 The thermae had many attributes in addition
to the baths. There were libraries, rooms for
poetry readings, and places to buy and eat
food. The modern equivalent would be a
combination of a library, art gallery, mall,
restaurant, gym, and spa.
 Main Building : Three Parths of the Themae
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Tepidarium-warm room
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Calidarium- Hot Water bath
Sudatarium – also referred to as sweat bath
with the hottest bath and tiscina(pool)
Theatre
 Theatre Orange
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Amphitheatre – Place for Gladiatorial Combat
THE BASILICA: INFLUENTIAL FORUM
Roman basilica was a place of public assembly
and commerce, as well as a hall of justice.
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Triumphal Arches
 Arch of Titus- made to commemorate the
capture of Jerusalem
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 Arch of Tiberius- this was made to
commemorate the recovery of Roman
Standards lost by Varus at the battle of the
teutoburg forest
 Arch of Constantine- in honor of the victory
over maxentius
 Pillar of Victory- A Column or Columns made
to remember a victory
 Column of Marcus Aurelius-in
commemoration of the victory over the
Danube
 Rostal Column- made in commemoration of
Rome’s naval victories
 Palaces-There are two prominent types of
palaces made and used by the Romans
During their time
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The city of Spalato, which means "little
palace", was founded by the emperor
Diocletian on the coast of Dalmatia
Dwelling Houses
 domus (plural domūs, genitive domūs or domī)
was the type of house occupied by the upper
classes and some wealthy freedmen during
the Republican and Imperial eras. They could
be found in almost all the major
cities throughout the Roman territories.
 a private house planned in the following
manner
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