Seminar Topic: Questionnaire Presented by : Rekha HR Major Topics I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Meaning, definition and need. Question types Scales Validity and reliability Formatting the questionnaire Administering the questionnaire and Web questionnaires Advantages and disadvantages Conclusion I. Questionnaire: 1. Questionnaires are often used in surveys as the primary data collection instruments. 2. Questionnaires are useful in gathering information from key organization members about Attitudes Beliefs Behaviors Characteristics Why a Questionnaire is needed? To standardize the process of data collection – helps in analysis To achieve speed & accuracy in collection & recording To achieve speed & accuracy in handling data within & between offices for analyses Situations suitable for Questioning Knowledge, opinion, motivation, intension etc. are not open for observation Past events (like time & quantity of last purchase) can be studied only by questioning II. Question Types Questions are designed as, a. Open-ended, b. Closed Definition: Open-ended (Unstructured Questions) In this allow respondents to reply freely without having to select one of several provided responses. It is useful in exploratory studies. An open question is likely to receive a long answer. Closed (Structured) In this questionnaires are characterized by a group of provided fixed responses. Here participants are allowed to choose among several answers designed to reflect various views, beliefs or feelings A closed question can be answered with either a single word or a short phrase. Application and usage: a. Open-ended Try to anticipate the response you will get Well suited for getting opinions Useful in explanatory situations Eg: What are the facilities you are expecting from the library ? b. Closed Use when all the options may be listed When the options are mutually exclusive Eg: Are you using the internet facility available in the library a. Yes b. No Open-Ended and Closed Questions Open-ended Slow High High Easy Difficult Closed Speed of completion Exploratory nature Breadth and depth Ease of preparation Ease of analysis Fast Low Low Difficult Easy Questionnaire Language Questionnaire language should be Simple Specific Free of bias Not patronizing Technically accurate Addressed to those who are knowledgeable Appropriate for the reading level of the respondent III. Scales Scales are devised to Measure the attitudes or characteristics of respondents Have respondents act as judges for the subject of the questionnaire Measurement Scales There are four different forms of measurement scales: Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Nominal Scales Nominal scales are used to classify things into categories It is the weakest form of measurement Data may be totaled Eg., What type of software do you use the most? 1 = Word Processor 2 = Spreadsheet 3 = Database Program 4 = Email Ordinal Scales Allow classification Ordinal scales also imply rank ordering There is no difference between the importance of the choices Eg.,The support staff of the Technical Support Group is: 1. Extremely Helpful 2. Very Helpful 3. Moderately Helpful 4. Not Very Helpful 5. Not Helpful At All Interval Scales An interval scale is used when the intervals are equal There is no absolute zero Examples of interval scales include the Fahrenheit or centigrade scale Eg., How useful is the support given by the Technical Support Group? NOT AT ALLUSEFUL EXTREMELY USEFUL 1 2 3 4 5 Ratio Scales The intervals between numbers are equal Ratio scales have an absolute zero Eg., Approximately how many hours do you spend on the Internet daily? 0 2 4 6 8 IV. Validity and Reliability Questionnaires must be valid and reliable Reliability of scales refers to consistency in response Getting the same results if the same questionnaire was administered again under the same conditions Validity is the degree to which the question measures what the analyst intends to measure V. Formatting the Questionnaire Questionnaire Format When designing questionnaires Allow ample white space Allow enough space for responses to be typed for openended questions Ask respondents to clearly mark their answers Use objectives to help determine format Be consistent in style Order of Questions Most important questions go first Similar topics should be clustered together Randomization of questions tries the patience of respondents Controversial questions should be positioned after less controversial questions Questionnaire Design Steps Ten Steps of Questionnaire Construction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Specify objectives: List of needed information Decide method of data collection Determine content of individual questions Determine type of questions to use Decide wording of the questions Decide question sequence Pre-Code & Obtain approval Decide layout Pre Test / Pilot survey Revise & Implement VI Methods of Administering the Questionnaire Methods of administering the questionnaire include Convening All concerned respondents together at one time Personally administering the questionnaire Allowing respondents to self-administer the questionnaire Mailing questionnaires Administering over the Web or via email Web Form Questionnaires Controls (fields) used on Web forms Single line text box Scrolling text box, used for one or more paragraphs of text Check box for yes-no or true-false answers Radio button for mutually exclusive yes-no or true-false answers Drop-down menu for selection from a list Submit or Clear buttons Electronically Submitting Questionnaires Administering a questionnaire electronically has many benefits Reduced costs Collecting and storing the results electronically VII Advantages and disadvantages of questionnaire: a. Some advantages of questionnaires: Questionnaires are more objective than interviews. Generally it is relatively quick to collect information using a questionnaire. Potentially information can be collected from a large portion of a group. However return rates can be dramatically improved if the questionnaire is delivered and responded to in class time. b. Some disadvantages of questionnaires: Questionnaires, like many evaluation methods occur after the event, so participants may forget important issues. Questionnaires are standardized, so it is not possible to explain any points in the questions that participants might misinterpret. Open-ended questions can generate large amounts of data that can take a long time to process and analyze. Respondents may answer superficially especially if the questionnaire takes a long time to complete. Respondents may not be willing to answer the questions. They might not wish to reveal the information or they might think that they will not benefit from responding perhaps even be penalized by giving their real opinion. VIII. conclusion: Questionnaire is an important tool in the research methodology. They are the primary data collection instruments. In this objective based question must be develop and care must be taken regarding framing the questions. The Questionnaires are written instruments. It has both advantages and disadvantages. Investigators should weigh all of these carefully before apply in the research. Thanking you..